Python Cheat Sheet

Python Basics Cheat Sheet

Python is one of the most popular programming languages in networking World. Almost all network engineers learn and use this programming language in their daily works. Because of the fact that there are many details in Python as in all programming languages, sometimes we can forget a basic command or a general concept, usage. Python Cheat Sheet has created to overcome this case and aims to remind you the missing points of this awesome network programming language. Basic Python Codes Cheat Sheet is like other sheets like CLI Command Cheat Sheet, Linux Commands Cheat Sheet etc.

python-cheat-sheet-ipcisco.com

Hello World!

print Hello World!
print("Hello World!")
print with a variable
x= "Hello World!"
print(x)

Output:

Hello World!

Python Variables

local scope contains inside of a function

example: x, y

def newfunc():
  x = 5
  y = 10
  print(x+y)

newfunc()
global scope contains all python code

examle: z

z = 50
def myfunc():
  x = 300

myfunc()
print(x+z)
printing variables
a = 5
b = "John"
abc = {1,2,3,4,5}
mylist = ["x","yy","zzz"]

print(a)
print(b)
print(abc)
print(mylist)

Output:

5
John
{1, 2, 3, 4, 5}
['x', 'yy', 'zzz']
variable class
a = 5
b = "Cisco"
abc = {1,2,3,4,5}
mylist = ["router","switch","firewall"]

print(type(a))
print(type(b))
print(type(abc))
print(type(mylist))

Output:

<class 'int'>
<class 'str'>
<class 'set'>
<class 'list'>

Python Lists

number list
numbers = [1,10,8,3,15]
string list
cars = ["Porche", "Aston Martin", "Ferrari"]
list length
cars = ["Porche", "Aston Martin", "Ferrari"]
length = len(cars)
print(length)

Output:

3
adding item
elves = ["Legolas", "Elrond"]
elves.append("Arwen")
print(elves)

Output:

["Legolas", "Elrond", "Arwen"]
removing item
list = [6, 15, 24, 36, 55]
list.remove(24)
print(list)

Output:

[6, 15, 36, 55]
sorting list
list = [85, 9, 3, 15, 75, 23]
list.sort()
print(list)

Output:

[3,9,15,23,75,85]
reverse sort
list = [85, 9, 3, 15, 75, 23]
list.sort(reverse=True)
print(list)

Output:

[85,75,23,15,9,3]
pop item
numbers = [14,26,45,76,95]
numbers.pop(3)
print(numbers)

Output:

[14, 26, 45, 95]
reverse list
numbers = [1,2,3,4,5]
numbers.reverse()
print(numbers)

Output:

[5, 4, 3, 2, 1]
comprehension
list1 = ["152", "4", "98", "169", "16"]
list2 = [x for x in list1 if "9" in x]
print(list2)

Output:

['98', '169']
finding Index
numbers = [5,9,45,7,126,4]
x = numbers.index(45)
print(x)

Output: 

2

Python Tuples

number tuple
tuple1 = (1, 2, 3)
string tuple
tuple2 = ("John", "Elena", "Albert")
finding tuple member
tuple1 = ("John", "Elena", "Albert")
print(tuple1[1])

Output:

Elena
printing tuple isle
tuple1 = (1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6)
print(tuple1[2:4])

Output:

(3, 4)
Counting members
numbers = (10,15,24,10,29,34,45,10)
x = numbers.count(10)
print(x)

Output:

3
Tuple length
numbers = (10,15,24,10,29,34,45,10)
x =len(numbers)
print(x)

Output:

8
Couting an item
numbers = (10,5,14,25,38,10,62,47,10)
x = numbers.count(10)
print(x)

Output:

3
for loop with tuple
cars = ("bmw", "audi", "volvo", "mercedes")
for x in cars:
	print(x)

Output:

bmw
audi
volvo
mercedes

Python Sets

string set
dwarves = {"Thorin", "Balin", "Dwalin"}
number set
numbers={23,5,2,14,32,18,45}
mixed set
items={True, 5, 2.7, "Gimli", False, 34}
union set
dwarves1 = {"Thorin", "Balin", "Dwalin"}
dwarves2 = {"Gimli", "Bofur", "Thorin"}
print(dwarves1 | dwarves2)

Output:

{'Balin', 'Dwalin', 'Bofur', 'Thorin', 'Gimli'}
adding item
dwarves = {"Thorin", "Balin", "Dwalin"}
dwarves.add("Gimli")
print(dwarves)

Output:

{'Balin', 'Gimli', 'Thorin', 'Dwalin'}
removing item
dwarves = {"Thorin", "Balin", "Dwalin"}
dwarves.remove("Thorin")
print(dwarves)

Output:

{'Balin', 'Dwalin'}
clear set
dwarves = {"Thorin", "Balin", "Dwalin"}
dwarves.clear()
print(dwarves)

Output:

set()
finding difference
dwarves1 = {"Thorin", "Balin", "Dwalin"}
dwarves2 = {"Gimli", "Balin", "Thorin"}
dwarves3 = dwarves1.difference(dwarves2)
print(dwarves3)

Output: 

{'Dwalin'}

If Statements

if statement
if (condition):
	body
If, else statement
if (condition):
	body
else:
	body
if, elif,else statement
if (condition)
	body
elif (condition):
	body
else: 
	body
finding even/odd
x = 5
if (x % 2 == 0):
	print("x is an even number")
else:
	print("x is an odd number")

Output:

x is an odd number
continue statement
numbers=(5,12,25,33,48,50,61)
for x in numbers:
	if x % 5 ==0:
		print("{} divided by five.".format(x))
	else:
		continue

Output:

5 divided by five.
25 divided by five.
50 divided by five.
nested if
numbers=(30,44,54,63,78,96)
for x in numbers:
	if x % 3 == 0:
		if x % 9 == 0:
			print ("{} divided 3&9".format(x))

Output:

54 divided 3&9
63 divided 3&9
if, elif,else
x = 10
if x > 10:
	print("greater")
elif x < 10:
	print("smaller")
else:
	print("equal")

Output:

equal
if, elif,else with list
list1=[30, 21, 11, 16, 82, 47, 28, 79]
for x in list1:
	if x < 21:
		print("{} is smaller than 21.".format(x))
	elif x > 21:
		print("{} is greater than 21.".format(x))
	else :
		print("{} is equal to 21.".format(x))

Output:

30 is greater than 21.
21 is equal to 21.
11 is smaller than 21.
16 is smaller than 21.
82 is greater than 21.
47 is greater than 21.
28 is greater than 21.
79 is greater than 21.

Python While Loop

python while loop
while statement:
	body
printing numbers
x = 0
while x < 5:
  print(x)
  x += 1

Output:

0
1
2
3
4
break statement
x = 0
while x < 10:
  x += 1
  if x == 5:
    break
  print(x)

Output:

1 
2 
3 
4
continue statement
x = 0
while x < 10:
  x += 1
  if x == 3:
    continue
  if x == 5:
    continue
  print(x)

Output:

1
2
4
6
7
8
9
10

 

Python File Operations

open function modes
  • r”    To read the file.
  • a”    To append to the end of the file.
  • w”   To  write to the file.
  • x”    To create the file.
content of filexyz.txt Weak people revenge.
Strong people forgive.
Intelligent people ignore.
file read and print
x = open("filexyz.txt", "r")
print(x.read())

Output:

Weak people revenge.
Strong people forgive.
Intelligent people ignore.
file write
x = open("fileabc.txt", "w")
x.write("Good things take time.")
x.close()
Good things take time.
file append
x = open("fileabc.txt", "a")
x.write("Nice!")
x.close()

x = open("fileabc.txt", "r")
print(x.read())

Output:

Good things take time.Nice!
file create
a = open("Ourfile.txt", "x")
file remove
import os
os.remove(“myfile.txt”)

Pyhton Modules

Python modules https://docs.python.org/3/py-modindex.html
extention .py
using a module
import math
using part of a module
from math import sqrt
print(sqrt(25))
creating a module
def square(x):
  print(x*x)

 def hello(x):
  print("Hello ",x)

record this file as “ourmodule.py“.

import ourmodule
ourmodule.square(5)
ourmodule.hello("Gokhan")

Output:

25
Hello Gokhan
module alias
import ourmodule as our
listing module functions
import math
print(dir(math))

Output:

['__doc__', '__loader__', '__name__', ...

Python PIP Install

checking PIP version
C:\Users\ipcisco>pip --version
installing PIP
C:\Users\ipcisco>pip install xyz
listing installed packages
C:\Users\ipcisco>pip list
unistall a package (xyz)
C:\Users\ipcisco>pip uninstall xyz
using a package (xyz)
import xyz

Python Math

math operators + (addition)

– (subtraction)

* (multiplication)

/ (divide)

% (difference)

** (power)

math operations
a = 16
b = 8
c = 3
print(a - b + c)

Output:

11
finding odd number
a = [1,2,3,4,5,6]
for x in a:
   if x%2==0:
      print(x)

Output:

2
4
6
min, max functions
a = min(7,15,2)
b = max(8,28,12)
print(a)
print(b)

Output:

2
28
pow function
a = 2
b = 5
print(pow (a,b))

Output:

32
sqrt function
import math
x = math.sqrt(100)
print(x)

Output:

10.0
factorial function
import math
x=math.factorial(5)
print(x)

Output:

120
ceil/floor functions
import math
x = math.ceil(1.7)
print(x)

Output:

2
pi function
import math
x = math.pi
print(x)

Output:

3.141592653589793

Escape Characters

\b Backspace
\r  Carriage Return
\f  Form Feed
\xhh Hex value
\n New Line
\ooo Octal value
\’  Single Quote
\t Tab
\\ Backslash

Arithmetic Operators

+ Addition
–  Subtraction
* Multiplication
/ Division
% Modulus
** Exponentiation
//  Floor division

Bitwise Operators

& AND (Sets each bit to 1 if both bits are 1)
| OR (Sets each bit to 1 if one of two bits is 1)
^ XOR ( Sets each bit to 1 if only one of two bits is 1)
~ NOT (Inverts all the bits)
<< Zero fill left shift (Shift left by pushing zeros in from the right and let the leftmost bits fall off)
>> Signed right shift (Shift right by pushing copies of the left most bit in from the left, and let the rightmost bits fall off)

Python Comments

using #
print("Hello!")                 #This is print function
a= 5*5                          #This is a calculation
print(a)                        #This is print function

Outout:

Hello!
25
using “””
"""
This is only a comment!
"""
print("Hello!")

Output:

Hello!

User Input

user input
user = input("What is Your Username:")
pwd = input("What is Your Password:")
print("Username is: " + user)
print("Password is: " + pwd)

Output:

Username is: IPCisco
Password is: xyz
user input and  

calculation

number = input("Please Enter A Number:")
number=int(number)
Square = number * number
print("The square of number:{}".format(Square))

Output:

Please Enter A Number: 5
The square of number:25

Python Strings

python string
"Hello"
string length
message = "hello,how are you?"
print(len(message))

Output:

18
using format
number1 = 2
number2 = 1
message = "I have {} cats and {} dog."
print(message.format(number1, number2))

Output:

I have 2 cats and 1 dog.
string  split
message = 'life is good'
print(message.split())

Output:

['life', 'is', 'good']
string replace
msg = "I have two dogs, two cats."
newmsg = msg.replace("three", "two")
print(newmsg)

Output:

I have three dogs, three cats.
string contains
msg = "Istanbul is in Turkey."
print(msg.find("Turkey"))

Output:

15
string find
msg = "I like cats."
print(msg.find("cats"))

Output:

7
string slice
x = "Hello World!"
print(x[2])

Output:

l
string slice
x = "Hello World!"
print(x[3:5])

Output:

lo
concatenation
print ("Hello" + "Python" + "World")

Output:

HelloPythonWorld
capitalize
msg = "welcome to python course!"
x = msg.capitalize()
print (x)

Output:

Welcome to python course!
title
msg = "welcome to python course!"
x = msg.title()
print (x)

Output:

Welcome To Python Course!
lower
msg = "weLcoMe to PytHon CouRse!"
x = msg.lower()
print (x)

Output:

welcome to python course!
upper
msg = "weLcoMe to PytHon CouRse!"
x = msg.upper()
print (x)

Output:

WELCOME TO PYTHON COURSE!
count
msg = "I like cats. Because cats are cute."
x = msg.count("cats")
print(x)

Output:

2
join
characters = ["Aragorn", "Arwen", "Legolas"]
print ("-".join(characters))

Output:

Aragorn-Arwen-Legolas
partition
msg = "welcome to python course"
x = msg.partition("to")
print(x)

Output:

('welcome ', 'to', ' python course')
endswith
msg = "weLcoMe to PytHon CouRse!"
x = msg.endswith("!")

Output:

True

Python Dictionaries

python dictionary
character ={ 
			"race": "wizard", 
            "name": "Gandalf", 
            "color": ["grey", "white"] 
            }
dictionary length
character ={
	"race":"wizard",
	"name":"Gandalf",
	"color":["grey", "white"]
}
print(len(character))

Output:

3
access item
character ={
	"race":"wizard",
	"name":"Gandalf",
	"color":"grey",
}
print(character["name"])

Output:

Gandalf
access item (with get)
device ={
	"vendor": "Cisco",
	"model": "9000",
	"RU": 44
}
print(device.get("model"))

Output:

9000
adding items
device ={
	"brand": "Cisco",
    "model": "9000",
    "RU": 44
}
device["software"] = "Cisco IOS XE"
print(device)

Output:

{'brand': 'Cisco', 'model': '9000', 
'RU': 44, 'software': 'Cisco IOS XE'}
changing value
device ={
	"brand": "Cisco",
    "model": "9000",
	"RU": 44
}
device["RU"] = 30
print(device)

Output:

{'brand': 'Cisco', 'model': '9000', 'RU': 30}
changing value (with update)
device ={
	"brand": "Cisco",
    "model": "9000",
    "RU": 44
}
device.update({"RU": 30})
print(device)

Output:

{'brand': 'Cisco', 'model': '9000', 'RU': 30}
removing an item
device ={
	"vendor": "Cisco",
    "model": "9000",
    "RU": 44
}
device.pop("model")
print(device)

Output:

{'vendor': 'Cisco', 'RU': 44}
removing last item
device ={
	"vendor": "Nokia",
    "model": "7950 XRS",
    "RU": 39
}
device.popitem()
print(device)

Output:

{'vendor': 'Nokia', 'model': '7950 XRS'}
concatenation
print ("Hello" + "Python" + "World")

Output:

HelloPythonWorld
capitalize
msg = "welcome to python course!"
x = msg.capitalize()
print (x)

Output:

Welcome to python course!
title
msg = "welcome to python course!"
x = msg.title()
print (x)

Output:

Welcome To Python Course!
lower
msg = "weLcoMe to PytHon CouRse!"
x = msg.lower()
print (x)

Output:

welcome to python course!
upper
msg = "weLcoMe to PytHon CouRse!"
x = msg.upper()
print (x)

Output:

WELCOME TO PYTHON COURSE!
count
msg = "I like cats. Because cats are cute."
x = msg.count("cats")
print(x)

Output:

2
join
characters = ["Aragorn", "Arwen", "Legolas"]
print ("-".join(characters))

Output:

Aragorn-Arwen-Legolas
partition
msg = "welcome to python course"
x = msg.partition("to")
print(x)

Output:

('welcome ', 'to', ' python course')
endswith
msg = "weLcoMe to PytHon CouRse!"
x = msg.endswith("!")

Output:

True

Python For Loops

python for loop for value in sequence

   body (any action)

for loop with lists
numbers = [1, 2, 3]
for x in numbers:
   print(x*x)

Output:

1
4
9
for loop with strings
for x in "Kate":
   print(x)

Output:

K
a
t
e
for loop with if/else
numbers = [1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8]
even = []
odd = []
for x in numbers:
	if (x % 2 == 0):
		even.append(x)
	else:
		odd.append(x)
print("Even numbers:", even)
print("Odd numbers:", odd)

Output:

Even numbers: [2, 4, 6, 8]
Odd numbers: [1, 3, 5, 7]
break statement
numbers = [1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8]
for x in numbers:
	if (x == 5):
		break
	print(x*x)

Output:

1
4
9
16
continue statement
numbers = [1, 4, 5, 6, 7]
for x in numbers:
	if (x == 5):
		continue
	if (x == 7):
		continue
	print(x*x)

Output:

1
16
36
nested for loops
cars= ["Audi", "Aston Martin"]
colors = ["White", "Black"]
for x in cars:
	for y in colors:
		print(x, y)

Output:

Audi White
Audi Black
Aston Martin White
Aston Martin Black

Python Functions

creating function
def first_function():
	print("This is Python!")
calling function
def first_function():
	print("This is Python Function!")
first_function()

Output:

"This is Python Function!
 

function with numbers

def our_function(x,y):
	print(x * y)

our_function(3,10)
our_function(5,11)

Output:

30
55
function with strings
def data(name,surname,no):
 print("Name:", name, "Surname:",surname,"No:",no)

data("Gokhan","Kosem",1234)

Output: 

Name: Gokhan Surname: Kosem No: 1234
default value
def newfunc(name = "Legolas"):
	print(name + " is an Elf." )

newfunc("Elrond")
newfunc("Galadriel")
newfunc()

Output:

Elrond is an Elf.
Galadriel is an Elf.
Legolas is an Elf.
using asterisk (*)
def new_func(*elves):
	print("The strongest Elf is " + elves[1])
new_func("Elrond", "Galadriel", "Legolas")

Output:

The strongest Elf is Galadriel
using asterisk (*)
def letsadd(*args):
    return sum(args)
print(letsadd(15,25,50))

Output:

90
return statement
def newfunction(a):
  return a * a
print(newfunction(5))

Output:

25
pass statement
def newfunc():
  pass

Used to get no error in empty function.

recursive function
def findfactorial(a):
    if a == 1:
        return 1
    else:
        return (a * findfactorial(a-1))
print(findfactorial(5))

Output:

120
lambda function
x = lambda y: y * 2
print(x(3))

Output:

6
lambda with filter func.
list1 = [7,12,4,15,3,2,8]
list2 = list(filter(lambda x: (x%2 == 0) , list1))
print(list2)

Output:

[12, 4, 2, 8]
lambda with map func.
list1 = [7,12,4,15]
list2 = list(map(lambda x: (x > 5) , list1))
print(list2)

Output:

[True, True, False, True]
try/except function
try:
  x=5
  print(x)
except:
  print("An Error!")

Output:

5
try/except function
try:
  print(a)
except:
  print("An Error!")

Output:

An Error!
try/except/finally
try:
  print(a)
except:
  print("An Error!")
finally:
  print("I will close the program.")

Output:

An Error!
I will close the program.
try/except/else
try:
  a=5
  print(a)
except:
  print("An Error!")
else:
  print("All is Good!")

Output:

5
All is Good!
raise function
for x in range(10):
               if x > 5:
                raise Exception("Higher 5!")

Output:

Traceback (most recent call last):
  File "./prog.py", line 3, in <module>
Exception: Higher 5!

Comparison Characters

== Equal
!= Not Equal
> Greater than
< Less than
>= Greater than or equal to
<= Less than or equal to

Assignment Operators

= Asign (x = 1)
+=  Add AND  (x += 2) (x=x+2)
-= Subtract AND (x -= 2) (x=x-2)
*= Multiply AND (x *= 2) (x=x*2)
/= Divide AND (x /= 2) (x=x/2)
%= Modulus AND (x %= 3) (x = x % 3)
//= Divide Floor AND (x //= 3) (x = x // 3)
**= Exponent AND (x **= 3) (x = x ** 3)
&= Bitwise AND (x &= 4) (x = x & 4)
|= Bitwise OR (x |= 4) (x = x | 4)
^= Bitwise xOR (x ^= 4) (x = x ^ 4)
>>= Bitwise Right Shift (x >>= 5) (x = x >> 5)
<<=  Bitwise Left Shift (x <<= 5) (x = x << 5)

Other Operators

and returns True, if both statements are true.
or returns True, if one of the statements is true.
not reverse the result, returns False if the result is true.
is checks that if both objects are the same object. If yes, it returns True.
is not checks that if both objects are different objects. If yes, it returns True.
in returns True, if it finds the value as a member in the sequence.
not in returns True, if it do not find the value as a members in the sequence.

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Python Cheat Sheet For Beginners

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When you download Python Cheat Sheet Pdf, you can use it to remember any Python code. This can be any Python code. Maybe you do not remember, Python list, dictionary, ranges etc. Maybe you remember the codes but you forgot the usage. Whichever it is, you can find on this page and with this page, you will not struggle on internet to find any Python code.

 

 


 

 

Python Interview Cheat Sheet

Python Cheat Sheet can be used also for your Python Job interview. Before your technical interview, you can check this sheet and you can use it as Python Interview Sheet. You can find all the basic terms of Python programming languages in this cheat sheet. So, the questions in you technical Python interview will be mostly on this Python Interview Cheat Sheet.

 

In your Python interview, maybe they will ask how to use Python tubles? Maybe they want to learn, how to get the last term in a Python list. Or maybe their question will be, how to get different types of inputs from the user.

 

Beside basic questions, in the Python Interview, they can ask complex questions about a programming code part. They can ask any specific parts of a Python program in the interview. Python Interview Cheat Sheet can remind you basic terms for this complex questions.

 


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If you find this page useful for your Python works and if you like it, kindly share this page with your friends, with your colleagues, with your social media followers etc. Whoever you share this knowledge, this will help us to develop better cheat sheets.

 

You can share this page in your social media accounts like facebook, linkedin, twitter etc., in related network and programming forums, in your blogs, in any of your accounts. If you share this page, this page will help another network, programming fan and it eases his/her work. So, if you would like to help others, kindly share this page.

 

Do not forget, Knowledge Increases by Sharing.

 

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