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ipv6-redirection
IPv6 NDP (Neighbour Discovery Protocol)

IPv6 NDP (Neighbour Discovery Protocol) IPv6 NDP (Neighbor Discovery Protocol) is the Protocol that provide Network Nodes’ Discovery as its name implies. In the IPv4 World, we were using ARP,…


Open-Flow-Connection-Establishment
Open Flow Messages

Open Flow Messages Open Flow Control Messages are based on TCP. To set up Open Flow communication, Open Flow Controller listens TCP ports 6633/6653. There are five main parts in…


Open-Flow-Switch
Open Flow Components

Open Flow Components There are two main components used with Open Flow. These are: • Open Flow Switches • Open Flow Controllers Open Flow Switches Open Flow provide the seperation…


Open-Flow
Open Flow Overview

Open Flow Overview Open Flow is a Standard based Layer 2 Communication protocol used between Controller and Switch in SDN. It allows to access to the Forwarding Plane of the…


huawei-floating-static-routing
Floating Static Route and Default Route Configuration

Floating Static Route and Default Route Configuration Floating Static Route Configuration Floating Static Route is used for a Backup Static Route. A second route is defined with a high Preference…


huawei-static-routing
Huawei Static Routing and Load Balancing

Huawei Static Routing and Load Balancing Huawei Static Routing Static Route is a manual simple route configuration.In Huawei Routers, Static Routing is similar to the other platforms. The concept is…


with-ecmp
ECMP Configuration on Nokia Routers

ECMP Configuration on Nokia Routers In this lesson, we will talk about ECMP (Equal Cost Multipath) Configuration on Nokia Routers. To explaint ECMP better, we will use the below MPLS…


huawei-vrp
Huawei VRP (Versatile Routing Platform)

Huawei VRP (Versatile Routing Platform) Huawei VRP Overview VRP (Versatile Routing Platform) is the Operating System that many Huawei devices operate. This is like Cisco’s IOS, Nokia's (Alcatel-Lucent’s) TiMOS and…


huawei-file-system
Huawei Router File System

Huawei Router File System In all network device, there is a File System. In Huawei routers and switches there is also a File System. File System stores many important files…


tranport-and-service-labels
MPLS VPN Labelling

MPLS VPN Basics MPLS mechanims uses two types MPLS Label to accomplish MPLS VPN Services. These are the two tunnel mechanims in MPLS mechnism. A Tunnel and many sub service…


push-swap-pop
MPLS Label Switching

MPLS Label Switching MPLS Technology uses different routers for different roles. There are some common router types that are in these roles. The names of these routers are changing in…


ipv6-configuration-on-nokia
IPv6 Configuration on Nokia Routers

IPv6 Configuration on Nokia Routers In this configuration example, we will configure IPv6 on Nokia Service Routers (Formerly Alcatel-Lcuent Routers. For this simple IPv6 Address configuration example, we will use…


juniper-ipv6-example
IPv6 Configuration on Juniper

IPv6 Configuration on Juniper In this configuration example, we will configure IPv6 on Juniper Routers. For our Juniper IPv6 Configuration Example, we will use the below IPv6 Topology. For our…


distributed-service-mirroring-example
Remote Service Mirroring Configuration

Remote Service Mirroring Configuration Remote Service Mirroting is the other Service Mirroring type. As we have talked about before, Remote Service Mirroring is the service mirroring that is done between…


service-mirroring-example
Local Service Mirroring Configuration

Local Service Mirroring Configuration In this article, we will focus on Nokia (Alcatel-Lucent) Service Mirroring Configuration. As we have talked about before, there are two Service Mirroring Type. Local Service…


service-mirroring
Nokia Service Mirroring

Service Mirroring During troubleshooting activities, different tools are used to determine the cause of a problem. Mirroring is also a troubleshooting tool for these activities. In Nokia (Alcatel-Lucent) world, mirroring…


sdn-terminology
SDN Terminology

SDN Terminology SDN : Software-Defined Networking. It is a new network architecture that comprised different network technologies to build a flexible, scalabile, agile and easy manageble networks. SDN does this…


what-sdn-brings
What Will SDN Bring?

What Will SDN Bring? Software-Defined Networking (SDN) brings many innovation to the Traditional Networs. It provides this with newly defined architecture. What are these features? These are: • New architecture…


SDN-planes
SDN Architecture Components

SDN Architecture Components SDN Consist of different components. Here, we will see all these components and their duty one by one. What are these SDN Components? The SDN Components are:…


traditional-versus-sdn
Traditional Network Drawbacks Versus SDN

Traditional Networks Drawbacks Versus SDN Till recent years many companies were using Traditional Network Architectures. They are still widely used in the World. But Traditional networks generally has some drawbacks.…


sdn-controlling-the-data-plane
What is SDN ?

What is SDN ? SDN (Software-Defined Networking) is a new network architecture that comprised different network technologies to build a flexible, scalabile, agile and easy manageble networks. With its new…


Ethernet-Frame-Header-Types
Ethernet Basics

Ethernet Basics Ethernet is the most used technology in LANs in network world. Tehre are various technologies can be used on LANs like Ethernet, Token Ring, FDDI. But the most…


basic-home-lan
Local Area Networks

Local Area Networks (LANs) There are three coomon network types according to their coverage size. These are, LANs, MANs and WANs. LAN is the smallest sized network in these three…


switches
Switches

Switches Switches are one of the most important network equipments of a computer network. It is the main device of a LAN (Local Area Network). Switch is a Layer 2,…


how-gratuitous-arp-works-4
Gratuitous ARP

Gratuitous ARP Gratuitous ARP, is the ARP that is used to inform the network about IP to MAC Mappings after a change. It is sent as Broadcast message to all…


how-proxy-arp-works-3
Proxy ARP

Proxy ARP Basically Proxy ARP is the ARP that is used between one more networks. On other words, we can say that Proxy ARP provides data link dicovery between different…


how-arp-works-2
Address Resolution Protocol (ARP)

Address Resolution Protocol (ARP) ARP (Address Resolution Protocol) is a Layer 2 Protocol. Layer 2 uses Physicall addresses (MAC addresses) for the communication. Here, ARP is used to convert a…


huawei-aaa-configuration
Huawei AAA Configuration

Huawei AAA Configuration AAA Configuration is done basically in similar ways in different vendor equipments. But for specific vendors, the configuration commands are a little different than the other. Here,…


lag-saturation
Ethernet Redundancy with LAG

Ethernet Redundancy Redundacy is very important for a network. In many networks, redundacy is provided in different type of topologies or protocols. Here, we will talk about redundancy on Ethernet.…


GLBP-example
GLBP Configuration on Cisco

GLBP Configuration on Cisco GLBP is a Cisco Proprietary Firsth Hop Redundancy Protocol. In this lesson, we will configure GLBP on Cisco devices with a GLBP Example Topology. For our…


GLBP
GLBP (Gateway Load Balancing Protocol)

GLBP (Gateway Load Balancing Protocol)   GLBP Overview GLBP (Gateway Load Balancing Protocol) is an another First Hop Redundancy Protocol. It is a Cisco proprietary protocol like HSRP. So ,you…


first-hop-redundancy-protocols
First Hop Redundancy Protocols (FHRPs)

First Hop Redundancy Protocols (FHRPs) Redundancy is a common point for today’s High Available Networks. First Hop Redundancy is one of the redundancy mechanisms that provide high available and always…


hsrp-topology
HSRP Configuration on Cisco IOS

HSRP Configuration on Cisco IOS In this section we will do an HSRP configuration to understand the issue better. To do this wewill use the below topology. At the end…


vrrp-configuration
VRRP Configuration on Cisco

VRRP Configuration on Cisco In this VRRP example, we will work on Cisco IOS and configure VRRP (Virtual Router Redundancy Protocol) on Cisco Routers. Configuring VRRP is like configuring Cisco…


vrrp-master-backup-selection-1
VRRP (Virtual Router Redundancy Protocol)

VRRP(Virtual Router Redundancy Protocol) VRRP Overview VRRP (Virtual Router Redundancy Protocol) is a standard based First Hop Redundancy Protocol. It eliminates the single point of failure by using multiple optional…


HSRP-topology
HSRP (Hot Standby Router Protocol)

HSRP (Hot Standby Router Protocol) HSRP(Hot Standby Router Protocol) is a Cisco proprietary First Hop Redundancy protocol. HSRP first hop redundancy mechanism provide alternative path as a proactive action for…


mld-querier-selection-step-2
MLD Operations

MLD Operations In this lesson, we will talk about the specific operations of MLD. We will see; • MLD Querier Selection • MLD General Query, Group Query and Report Mechanism…


cisco-mld-configuration
MLD Configuration on Cisco

MLD Configuration on Cisco In this lesson we will configure Multicast Listener Discovery (MLD) on Cisco devices. Out Multicast Network will be like below: Now, let’s start to configure MLD.…


MLD-topology
MLD (Multicast Listener Discovery)

MLD (Multicast Listener Discovery) Multicast Listener Discovery (MLD) is the IPv6 Multicast Group Membership Protocol. It works between the Multicast Routers and the multicast hosts with Query,Report and Leave Messages.…


huawei vlan routing l2 switch 533x548 - Blog
VLAN Routing with Layer 2 Switch and Router on Huawei

VLAN Routing with Layer 2 Switch and Router VLAN Routing with Layer 2 Switch is done with the help of a Layer 3 device, a router. Mainly, in the router,…


huawei-vlan-routing-l3-switch
VLAN Routing with Layer 3 Switch on Huawei

VLAN Routing with Layer 3 Switch on Huawei We do not need any other Layer 3 device for VLAN Routing with Layer 3 Switch. Because Layer 3 switch can achieve…


juniper-static-routing
Static Routing on Juniper Routers

Static Routing on Juniper Routers Static Routing is the manual route configuration on routers. In JUNOS, static route configuration is done similarly with other Network operating systems. After “static route”…


huawei-advanced-acl-example
Huawei Access-Lists (ACL)

Huawei Access-Lists (ACL) In this configuration example, we will learn the Access List (ACL) Configuration on Huawei Routers. Configuring Access Lists has some basic steps and we will cover all…


alcatel-nokia-router-cli
Basic Nokia Service Router Configuration

Basic Nokia Service Router Configuration Command Line Interface (CLI) is the interface that we can configure, manage and maintenance router operations manually. Each Network Engineer works with Command Line Interface…


iana-rirs-nirs-lirs-isps
Basic Terms for Internet

Basic Terms for Internet Like millions of people on the world, as a network engineer we are also using Internet. But a little different from other people, we also need…


CGMP-Operation-2
Cisco Group Management Protocol (CGMP)

Cisco Group Management Protocol (CGMP) Cisco Group Management Protocol (CGMP) is a Cisco proprietary Layer 2 protocol used for Layer 2 efficiency at layer 2. Basically whenever a host want…


IGMP-example-1
IGMP Snooping

IGMP Snooping IGMP Snooping is a Multicast mechanism that runs on Layer 2 switch. IGMP Snooping checks the IGMP join, leave messages and record the information about user about the…


cisco-igmp-example
Cisco IGMP Configuration Example

Cisco IGMP Configuration Example In this configuration example, we will configure Cisco Catalyst Switch for IGMP (Internet Group Management Protocol). As you know IGMP is used to manage host memberships…


IGMP-overview
IGMP (Internet Group Management Protocol)

IGMP (Internet Group Management Protocol) IGMP (Internet Group Management Protocol) is a Host-Router Multicast Signalling Protocol that provides dynamically registration of the hosts to the desired Multicast Groups. With IGMP,…


JUNIPER-BGP-next-hop-self-conf
Next Hop Self Command on Juniper Routers

Next Hop Self Command on Juniper Routers When an eBGP route advertised to vie iBGP, normally the next-hop of the route stay unchanged. This behaviour causes unknown destinations at the…


Juniper-import-export-policy
Routing Policy Configuration on Juniper Routers

Routing Policy Configuration on Juniper Routers Routing Policies are the rules that allows you to control and modify the default behaviour of the routing protocols like RIP, OSPF, IS-IS etc.…


Juniper-RIP-configuration-example
RIP Configuration on Juniper

RIP Configuration on Juniper In this lesson, we will configure Juniper routers for RIPv2. RIP is the simplest Routing Protocol and configuring RIP on Juniper Routers need a couple of…


Juniper-ISIS-configuration-example
ISIS Configuration on Juniper

ISIS Configuration on Juniper ISIS Protocol is a very good Routing Protocol. But it is rarely used nowadays. Instead ISIS Protocol, OSPF is generally used Routing Protocol. By the way,…


Juniper preferences 358x516 - Blog
Routing Tables of Juniper

Routing Tables of Juniper There are multiple Routing Tables in Juniper Routers. These Routing Tables and their roles are given below: • inet.0 - Stores IPv4 Unicast Routes. • inet.1…


Juniper-OSPFv2-configuration-example
Single Area OSPF (OSPFv2) Configuration on Juniper

Single Area OSPF (OSPFv2) Configuration on Juniper In this lesson, we will see the OSPFv2 Configuration on Juniper for Single Area OSPF.  For this OSPF Example, we will use the…


Juniper-BGP-configuration-example
Basic BGP Configuration on Juniper

Basic BGP Configuration on Juniper BGP is one of the widely used Routing Protocol. It is also known as Internet Protocol. In this lesson we will configure BGP on Juniper…


Multicast-MAC-addres-creation
Multicast MAC Addresses

Multicast MAC Addresses Multicast MAC addresses are the MAC addresses start with 0100:5e . As you know, MAC address has 48 bits and consist of vendor code and host code.…


ip-multicast-addresses
Multicast IP Addressing

Multicast IP Addressing Multicast Addresing is the addressing that is used for Multicast Groups. We can divide Multicast Addressing into two: IPv4 Multicast Addressing IPv6 Multicast Addresing These addresses identifies…


unicast-broadcast-multicast-anycast
Unicast, Broadcast, Multicast, Anycast

Unicast, Broadcast, Multicast, Anycast There are different transmission techniques in communication if we divide communication according to the receivers. These communication techniques are: Unicast Multicast Broadcast Anycast Unicast is the communication…


bfd-mechanism-failure-example
BFD Operation

BFD Operation BFD (Bidirectional Forwarding Detection) mechanism uses packets to inform both ends that the protocol is configured. With these packets, BFD provide basic connectivity and the parameter negotiation. The…


bfd-session-establishment
Bidirectional Forwarding Detection

Bidirectional Forwarding Detection (BFD) BFD (Bidirectional Forwarding Detection) is basically another Hello protocol based on UDP that detects link failures on forwarding plane. BFD runs on top of Layer 2…


Dynamic-NAT-configuration
NAT Configuration on Huawei Routers

NAT Configuration on Huawei Routers NAT (Network Address Translation) is a concept used to translate Private block IP addresses to the Public IP Addresses. By doing this, it provides internet…


huawei-link-aggregation-l3
Link Aggregation on Huawei Routers

Link Aggregation on Huawei Routers Link Aggregation is one of the important lessons of networking. This is also used too much in network operations. In this lesson, we will talk…


tcp-versus-udp
TCP versus UDP

TCP versus UDP Above, we have talked about TCP and UDP as an overview. Here, we will compare these two protocols’s main characteristics. This comparison is very important and generally…


udp-header
UDP (User Datagram Protocol)

UDP (User Datagram Protocol) UDP (User Datagram Protocol) is another Tranport Layer Protocol. It is simpler than TCP. It is generally used in unsenstive communications and real time applications that…


tcp-3-way-handshake
TCP (Transmission Control Protocol)

TCP (Transmission Control Protocol) TCP (Transmission Control Protocol) is the most important Transport Layer Protocol. It is also one of the important Protocols of network world. TCP is used in…


svi-operation
Switch Virtual Interfaces

Inter VLAN Routing is also achieved by SVIs (Switch Virtual Intrefaces). Here, we need to have a Multi Layer Switch. Layer 2 switches can also have SVI, but only one.This…


router-on-stick-operation
Inter VLAN Routing with Router on Stick

Inter VLAN Routing VLANs are used to separate different subnetworks in a big network. If you divide a network with VLANs, each of these new VLANs become a different network.…


network-cable types
Network Cabling

Network Cabling Cabling is the Layer 1 of OSI Model. One of the most important part of a network. With the media the network traffic can travel from one end…


broadcast-and-collision-domains
Hubs, Switches and Routers

Hubs, Switches and Routers We have talked about the Network Devices before. Now, let’s go deeply with some of the important ones. Hubs, Switches and Routers. Here, we will focus…


network-devices
Network Devices

Network Devices In computer networks, many different network devices are used. These devices used in computer networks has different characteristics. Each of them provide a specific role. What are these…


Network-Topologies
Network Topologies

Network Topologies Basically a network topology means that, connection style of the network nodes. To build a Network, we need a network topolog. There are different Network Topologies that can…


huawei-ospfv3-configuration
OSPFv3 Configuration on Huawei

OSPFv3 Configuration on Huawei In this lesson, we will configure OSPFv3 on Huawei routers. For our OSPFv3 Configuration Example, we will use the below OSPFv3 Network Topology: Let’s start our…


huawei-ripng-configuration
RIPng Configuration on Huawei

RIPng Configuration on Huawei In this lessons we will talk about the basic Routing Protocol of IPv6, RIPng. We will focus RIPng Configuration on Huawei routers. For our RIPng Configuration…


nokia-bgp-configuration
Basic BGP Configuration on Nokia 7750 SR

Basic BGP Configuration on Nokia 7750 SR In this lesson, we will see How to Configure BGP on Nokia (Formerly Alcatel-Lucent) Service Routers. Here, we will use Nokia 7750 Service…


nokia-ospf-configuration
Single Area OSPF Configuration on Nokia 7750 SR

Single Area OSPF Configuration on Nokia 7750 SR In this lesson, we will see How to Configure Single Area OSPF on Nokia (Formerly Alcatel-Lucent) Service Routers. Here, we will use…


Nokia-7450-ESS-Family
Nokia 7450 ESS Family

Nokia 7450 ESS Family Noki 7450 ESS (Ethernet Service Switch) Family is the high capacity Multi Layer Switch Family that are mainly used in Backbone Networks of various Service Providers.…


Nokia-7750-SR-Family
Nokia 7750 Service Router Family

Nokia 7750 Service Router Family Noki a 7750 SR (Service Router) Family is the high capacity Service Router Family that are mainly used in Backbone Networks of various Service Providers.…


nokia-7950-XRS-40
Nokia 7950 XRS Family

Nokia 7950 XRS Family Nokia 7950 XRS (Extensible Routing System) Family is the last and highest capacity Routers of Nokia (Formerly Alcatel-Lucent). These high capacity Routers are used in the…


Nokia-Service-Router-Components
Nokia Routers and Multi Layer Switches

Nokia Routers and Multi Layer Switches Nokia (Formerly Alcatel-Lucent) has a very competitive and reliable network devices like its top rival vendors,Cisco, Juniper and Huawei. Especially Routers and Multi Layer…


ip-filter-example
Nokia IP Filter Configuration Example 2

Nokia IP Filter Configuration Example 2 Almost all engineers have realized that, they can access specific subnets and devices but they can not access the others. One of the wways…


ip-filter-restrict-icmp
Nokia IP Filter Configuration Example 1

Nokia IP Filter Configuration Example 1 Here, we will show the IP Filter Configuration on Nokia (Formerly Alcatel-Lucent) Service Routers with an example. To do this, we will create an…


ip-filter-configuration-nokia
IP Filters (Access-Lists)

IP Filters (Access-Lists) IP Filters, are the rules that force the router to permit or to deny mentioned IP addresses, ports, protocols etc. from a source to a destinatio in…


osi-versus-tcpip
TCP/IP Model

TCP/IP Model TCP/IP Model is also another important referance model in network world. OSI Referance Model was Seven Layered, TCP/IP Model is Four Layered. In common, they model the same…


osi-model-headers
OSI Referance Model

OSI Model and TCP/IP Model Communication in a network has different layers and these different layers are mentioned in two different models. In other words,there are two common models in…


ppp-session-establishment
HDLC and PPP

HDLC and PPP HDLC (High-Level Data Link Control) HDLC (High-Level Data Link Control) is a Layer 2 WAN Encapsulation Protocol that is used on syncronous data links. It is the…


cisco-ppp-configuration
PPP Configuration on Cisco

PPP Configuration on Cisco In this lesson, we will talk about PPP Configuration on Cisco Routers. PPP is the general standard for point-to-point wan connection. For our PPP Configuration example,…


cisco-hdlc-configuration
HDLC Configuration on Cisco

HDLC Configuration on Cisco In this lesson, we will talk about HDLC configuration on Cisco Routers. Cisco HDLC has a different proprietary field in the data field of the protocol.…


wan-topology
WAN and WAN Technologies

WAN and WAN Technologies WAN (Wide Area Network) is the network that connects the geographical far areas. It can be used for a client to connect to the corporate network,…


huawei-ppp-configuration
PPP Configuration on Huawei

PPP Configuration on Huawei In this lesson, we will talk about PPP configuration on Huawei Routers. For our PPP Configuration example, we will use the below basic topology: Let’s start…


huawei-hdlc-configuration
HDLC Configuration on Huawei

HDLC Configuration on Huawei In this lesson, we will talk about HDLC configuration on Huawei Routers. For our HDLC Configuration example, we will use the below basic topology: Let’s start…


rstp-port-roles
Rapid Spanning Tree Protocol (RSTP)

Rapid Spanning Tree Protocol (RSTP) Rapid Spanning Tree Protocol (RSTP) is the second STP type. RSTP is a fast converged version of STP as its name implies. RSTP bypass the…


stp-port-selection
Spanning Tree Protocol Operation

Spanning Tree Protocol Operation Spanning Tree Protocol (STP) Operation is done with various sub processes. In this lesson, we will talk about each of these sub processes and explain STP…


l2-redundancy-broadcast-storm
Spanning Tree Protocol (STP)

Spanning Tree Protocol (STP) STP Overview In Layer 2 domain, redundancy is an important case. To provide redundant links, multiple connections are done between switches. But this redundancy mechanism can…


huawei-rstp-example-topology
RSTP Configuration on Huawei

RSTP Configuration on Huawei In this lessons, we will focus on RSTP (Rapid Spanning Tree Protocol) Configuration on Huawei Switches. For our Huawei RSTP Example, we will use the basic…


huawei-stp-configuration
STP Configuration on Huawei

STP Configuration on Huawei In this lessons, we will focus on STP (Spanning Tree Protocol) Configuration on Huawei Switches. For our Huawei STP Example, we will use the basic topology…


nokia-ies-service-configuration-example
IES (Internet Enhanced Services) Configuration

IES (Internet Enhanced Services) Configuration In this article, we will focus on how to configure IES on Alcatel-Lucent Service Routers. Here, our Service Router will be SR 7750. For our…


alcatel-ies-service
IES ( Internet Enhanced Services)

IES ( Internet Enhanced Services) IES (Internet Enhanced Services) is an Nokia (Formerly Alcatel-Lucent) Service that provide Internet Access to the Customers. Here, from the customer view, IES is a…


aaa-authentication-table
Authentication, Authorization, Accounting (AAA)

AAA (Authentication, Authorization, Accounting) AAA is the abbreviation for Authentication, Authorization and Accounting terms. This mechanims provide security and some user specific steps for a user that access to the…


alcatel-interface-configuration
Alcatel-Lucent Service Router Interface Configuration

Alcatel-Lucent Service Router Interface Configuration To configure an interface on Alcatel-Lucent routers, on ALU TiMOS, is a little different that we do on Cisco routers, on Cisco IOS. In Alcatel-Lucent…


icmp-header-how
ICMP (Internet Control Message Protocol)

ICMP (Internet Control Message Protocol) ICMP (Internet Control Message Protocol) is a Layer 3 Protocol used in IP networks. It is sent as encapsulated in IP packet. The general role…


cisco-gvrp-configuration
GVRP Configuration on Cisco

GVRP Configuration on Cisco In this configuration example, we will focus on how to configure GVRP on Cisco. Here, for our GVRP Configuration Example, we will use the below topology.…


gvrp-configuration-huawei
GVRP Configuration on Huawei

GVRP Configuration on Huawei GVRP is the standard based counterpart of Cisco VTP. In this configuration example, we will focus on how to configure GVRP on Huawei switches. For out…


cisco-mvrp-configuration
MVRP Configuration on Cisco

MVRP Configuration on Cisco In this configuration example, we will focus on how to configure MVRP on Cisco switches. Here, we will use Cisco Catalyst 6500 series switches. For our…


juniper-mvrp-configuration
MVRP Configuration on Juniper

MVRP Configuration on Juniper MVRP is the protocol that provides dynamic VLAN registration and creation. The counterparts of MVRP are Cisco VTP and standard GVRP. MVRP is an enhanced version…


mvrp-registration-modes
MVRP (Multiple VLAN Registration Protocol)

MVRP (Multiple VLAN Registration Protocol)   MVRP Overview MVRP (Multiple VLAN Registration Protocol) is the counterpart protocol of Cisco VTP and GVRP (GARP VLAN Registration Protocol). It is the last…


gvrp-and-vlans
GVRP (GARP VLAN Registration Protocol)

GVRP (GARP VLAN Registration Protocol)   GVRP Overview GVRP(GARP VLAN Registration Protocol) is a protocol that is used to control VLANs, dynamic VLAN registration and VLAN prunning in a network.…


huawei-ipsec-configuration-example
IPSec VPN Configuration On Huawei

IPSec VPN Configuration On Huawei In this lesson we will see IPSec VPN Configuration On Huawei Routers. IPSec configurations has some basic steps. These steps are given below: • IPSec…


ipsec-ah-esp-modes-k
IPSec VPN Overview

IPSec VPN Overview IPSec VPN provides a Private and Secure IP communication over a Public Network Infrastructure. With this technology, different sites or users in different geographical areas can communicate…


huawei-snmp-example-k
SNMP Configuration on Huawei

SNMP Configuration on Huawei In this article we will focus on How to Configure SNMP on Huawei devices. We will use the below simple topology and we will manage a…


snmp-architecture
SNMP – Overview

SNMP (Simple Network Management Protocol) Overview Simple Network Management Protocol (SNMP) is the main protocol of Network Management. With SNMP, network devices are easily managed and conttolled by a central…


vpws-cpipe
VPWS (Virtual Private Wire Service) – Fpipe, Apipe and Cpipe Configuration

Fpipe, Apipe and Cpipe Configuration In the previous articles, we have seen Epipe Configuration examples. Here, we will focus on another VPWS types, Fpipe, Apipe and Cpipe. Fpipe Configuration Fpipe…


distributed-epipe-configuration -k
VPWS – Distributed Epipe Configuration

VPWS – Distributed Epipe Configuration In the previous Epipe Example, we have talked about Local Epipe Configuration. So, we have used only one device and our Epipe service was in…


local-epipe-configuration
VPWS – Local Epipe Configuration

VPWS – Local Epipe Configuration In the previous part we have talked about the VPWS service of Alcatel-Lucent. In this article we will focus on the configuration of the VPWS…


Virtual-Private-Wire-Service
VPWS (Virtual Private Wire Service)

VPWS (Virtual Private Wire Service) VPWS (Virtual Private Wire Service) is Point-to-Point Layer 2 VPN Service of Alcatel-Lucent Service Routers. The other Layer 2 VPN Service is VPLS that will…


Huawei-gre-tunnel-example-k
Huawei GRE Tunnel Configuration

Huawei GRE Tunnel Configuration In this lesson, we will use Huawei Routers, to configure GRE Tunnels. For our example, we will use the topology given below: GRE Tunnel Configuration Let’s…


cisco gre configuration k 1 538x312 - Blog
GRE Tunnel Configuration with Packet Tracer (Cisco)

Cisco GRE Tunnel Configuration with Packet Tracer In this confgiuration example, we will see how to configure Cisco GRE (Generic Routing Encapsulation) Tunnel with Packet Tracer. For our GRE Tunnel…


gre-tunnel-topology-
GRE Tunnel Overview

GRE (Generic Routing Encapsulation) GRE Overview GRE (Generic Routing Encapsulation) is the mechanism that encapsulate one protocol in another protocol and provides connection between the nodes. This is done basically…


home-ip-allocation-k
Home Network IP Address Allocation and Internet Connection

Home Network IP Address Allocation and Internet Connection The Internet Connection of our home's need some basic devices, protocols and steps. In this article, we will see how our small…


subnetting-example-ipcisco-k
IP Subnetting and Subnetting Examples

IP Subnetting and Subnetting Examples As we talked about before, there are two parts in an IP address. One for them is Network part and the another is Host part.…


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IP Addressing (IPv4)

IP Addressing (IPv4) IP Addressing is one of the key point that a network engineer need to learn first. In this article we will start with the distribution of the…


administrative-distance-cisco-alcatel-huawei-juniper
IP and Layer 3 Overview

IP and Layer 3 Overview Layer 3 is one of the important Layer of OSI Model. This corresponds Internet Layer of TCP/IP Model. Layer 3 or Internet Layer handles end…


vprn-data-plane-operation-k
VPRN Data Plane Activities

VPRN Data Plane Activities VPRN Data Plane is the place that the traffic is sent and received generally. As we mentioned before, CE devices are the devices that are not…


vprn-control-plane
VPRN Control Plane Activities

VPRN Control Plane Activities As a basic definition, Control Plane is the time that routing exchange activities are done in VPRN Networks. These are the necesssary routing information exchange of…


vprn-mpls-labels-2
VPRN Labels

VPRN Labels VPRN is an IP/MPLS Layer 3 VPN Service. So, it uses the same Labels used in IP/MPLS. In MPLS and VPLS articles we have talked about MPLS Labels.…


vprn
How Does VPRN Work?

How Does VPRN Work? Basically in a VPRN Architecture, there is a Service Provider Network and there are multiple branches of multiple customers. Service Provider consist of P and PE…


huawei-dhcp-configuration-example-
DHCP Configuration On Huawei Routers

DHCP Configuration On Huawei Routers In this DHCP example we will configure a Huawei Router as a DHCP Server. After the configuration, a host device, here a PC, will receive…


dhcp-messages-and-ip-allocation-
DHCP IP Allocation Operation

DHCP IP Allocation Operation How Does DHCP Achieve IP Allocation Operation? DHCP does its job with Messages like many protocol. Here, as we mentined before, DHCP uses DHCP Messages. Let’s…


dhcp-ip-allocation-messages-
DHCP (Dynamic Host Configuration Protocol)

DHCP (Dynamic Host Configuration Protocol) In a network all the Layer 3 devices need to have an IP address. These IP addresses can be given manually one by one or…


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VPLS Labelling (Tunnel and Service Labels)

VPLS Labelling (Tunnel and Service Labels) As we discussed in the MPLS articles before, for MPLS we need labels. VPLS is also a MPLS Service, so we need to use…


vpls-mac-learning-
VPLS MAC Learning

VPLS MAC Learning VPLS is a Leyer 2 VPN technology. Becuase of its Layer 2 nature, "MAC Learning" is very important for VPLS. So, how does VPLS learn MAC Addresses?…


vpls-topologies-hierarchical-
VPLS Topologies

VPLS Topologies VPLS can be defined on One Service Router or on Multiple Service Routers. Basically we can divide VPLS into two here. The first one is VPLS, that is…


isis for ipv6 topology2 767x428 - Blog
ISIS For IPv6 Configuration Example on Cisco IOS

ISIS For IPv6 Configuration Example on Cisco IOS In this Cisco ISIS for IPv6 configuration example, we will configure ISIS with IPv6 extension configuration commands. For our example we will…


isis-single-multi-topology-sfp-restriction2
ISIS for IPv6

ISIS for IPv6 (Intermediate System to Intermediate System for IPv6) ISIS is one of the important Link-State protocols. With entrence of IPv6 to the network world, ISIS also need to…


eigrp for ipv6 example topology2 407x441 - Blog
EIGRP For IPv6 Configuration On Cisco IOS

EIGRP For IPv6 Configuration On Cisco IOS EIGRP for IPv6 is one of the most used routing protocol with IPv6. In this example, we will see how to configure EIGRP…


EIGRP-for-ipv6-conf-2
EIGRP for IPv6

EIGRP for IPv6 (Enhanced Interior Gateway Routing Protocol for IPv6) We can define “EIGRP for IPv6” as the enhancements that is done in EIGRP for IPv6 support. Basically, EIGRP protocol…


RIPng-example-topology-2
RIPng Configuration Example on Cisco IOS

RIPng Configuration Example on Cisco IOS RIPng Configuration On Cisco IOS The configuration of RIPng is a little different from its predecessor, RIPv2. First of all, RIPng is IPv6 avare…


ipv6-static-route-ipcisco-2
IPv6 Static and Default Route Configuration on Cisco IOS

IPv6 Static and Default Route Configuration on Cisco IOS IPv6 Static Route Configuration on Cisco IOS As you know, static route is the route that you manually define on a…


ospfv3 topology ipcisco 2 531x420 - Blog
OSPFv3 Configuration Example on Cisco IOS

OSPFv3 Configuration Example on Cisco IOS OSPFv3 is the IPv6 cabaple version of OSPF. The previous version of OSPF was OSPFv2. OSPFv2 is for IPv4. Here, we will configure OSPFv3…


isis-topology-ipcisco-2
ISIS Configuration Example on Cisco IOS

ISIS Configuration Example on Cisco IOS In this Cisco ISIS configuration example, we will configure an ISIS domain and see how to establish ISIS Routing. For our example we will…


protected-port-topology
What is Protected Port ?

What is Protected Port ? Protected Ports are one of the security mechanisms used on switch world. By default all the switch ports are unprotected and equal. But with protected…


private-vlans-example
Private VLAN Cisco Configuration Example

Private VLAN Cisco Configuration Example For Private VLAN configuration, we will do a configuration example with one switch and one router. Here, we will use the same topology that we…


Private-vlan-ports
Private VLANs (pVLANs)

Private VLANs (pVLANs) VLANs used to divide the Broadcast Domains. With this division, different departments, networks are isolated each other and become another Broadcast Domain. Sometimes, this separation is not…


huawei-vlan-configuration-example
VLAN Configuration on Huawei Switches

VLAN Configuration on Huawei Switches VLAN configuration on Huawei switch is not too different than Cisco VLAN configuration. But there are some differences. In this lesson, we will see the…


Extended acl with packet tracer
Extended Access List Configuration With Packet Tracer

Extended Access Lists Configuration With Packet Tracer In this lesson we will focus on Extended ACL Configuration with Packet Tracer. We will use the below topology for our packet tracer…


standard acl configuration packet tracer
Standard Access List Configuration With Packet Tracer

Standard Access List Configuration With Packet Tracer In this lsson we will see the standart access list and how to configure Standart Access List in Packet Tracer. There are three…


basic router security ipcisco
Basic Cisco Router Security Configuration

Basic Cisco Router Security Configuration Security is an important concern for a network engineer. How can a network engineer provide security of a router? In this basic Cisco router security…


administrative groups link coloring after cspf
Traffic Engineering, RSVP-TE Path Manuplation and Constraints

Traffic Engineering, RSVP-TE Path Manuplation and Constraints Traffic Engineering is one of the most important routing lessons. With traffic engineering, as a network engineer you are directing your network traffic…


RIP IPv6 RIPng topology
IPv6 Routing Protocols – Part 4 (RIPng)

RIPng (RIP Next Generation), RIP for IPv6 RIPng (RIP Next Generation)is the IPv6 available next level protocol of RIPv2. In modern large networks, generally RIP is not used and also…


IPCisco-Cisco-Juniper-Alcatel-Huawei-CheatSheet
COMPARISON OF TOP FOUR VENDORS’S COMMAND LINE

COMPARISON OF TOP FOUR VENDORS’S COMMAND LINE In IP world, there are many vendors. But some of these vendors are very common and widely used. These vendors are Cisco, Juniper,…


eigrp-packet-tracer-ipcisco
EIGRP Configuration With Packet Tracer

EIGRP Configuration With Packet Tracer EIGRP (Enhanced Interior Gateway Routing Protocol), is a Cisco Proprietary Hybrid Routing Protool. The configuration of EIGRP is similar to other Routing Protocols. In this…


eigrp successor feasible succesor ipcisco 848x522 - Blog
EIGRP - Part 4 (Other EIGRP Properties)

Other EIGRP Properties In EIGRP Operation there are some protocol characteristics that helps you better implementation. These characteristics are mentioned below. Route Summarization By default EIGRP summarizes the classfull addresses.…


eigrp-packet-types-ipcisco
EIGRP - Part 3 (EIGRP Packet Types and Neighbourship)

EIGRP Packet Types EIGRP (Enhanced Interior Gateway Routing Protocol) uses EIGRP messages to establish and maintain the EIGRP neighbourship. EIGRP uses five packet types for this messages. These packet types…


eigrp-table-types-ipcisco
EIGRP - Part 2 (EIGRP Tables)

EIGRP Tables As we talked about a little before, EIGRP (Enhanced Interior Gateway Routing Protocol) has three different tables. These EIGRP tables are: • Neighbour Table • Topology Table •…


eigrp neighbourship establishment ipcisco 541x548 - Blog
EIGRP - Part 1

EIGRP (Enhanced Interior Gateway Routing Protocol) EIGRP (Enhanced Interior Gateway Routing Protocol) is a It is a hybrid routing protocol that show both distance vector and link-state routing protocol properties.…


RSTP Configuration Example
RSTP Configuration on Packet Tracer

RSTP Configuration on Packet Tracer As you know, STP (Spanning Tree Protocol) is the key protocol of Switching world. With STP, link redundancy is provided and switching loops are avoided.…


STP Portfast Configuration
STP Portfast Configuration with Packet Tracer

STP Portfast Configuration with Packet Tracer In STP (Spanning Tree Protocol) there are Blocking State, Listenning State, Learning State and Forwarding State. With STP Portfast, Listenning State and Learning State…


switch-virtual-interfaces-ipcisco
Switch Virtual Interface Configuration on Packet Tracer

Switch Virtual Interface Configuration on Packet Tracer Theorically switches work in Layer 2 (Layer 2 switches). When you talk about switches, generally you do not think IP addresses. One of…


Router-On-Stick-ipcisco
Inter VLAN Routing Configuration on Packet Tracer (Router on Stick)

Inter VLAN Routing Configuration on Packet Tracer (Router on Stick) VLANs are the virtual LANS that provide divide your big network, into smaller pieces. Many companies use to divide their…


isis-topology-2
Routing With IS-IS Protocol - Part 5 (IS-IS versus OSPF)

IS-IS versus OSPF IS-IS Protocol and OSPF have some similarities and differences. Lets firstly check the similarities of these two protocol one by one: - IS-IS Protocol and OSPF are…


isis-adjacency-states
Routing With IS-IS Protocol - Part 4 (IS-IS Adjacency)

IS-IS Protocol Adjacency There are three types adjacency in IS-IS Protocol.These are: - Level 1 routers form L1 adjacency with L1 and L1/2 Routers - Level 2 routers form L2…


isis helllos ipcisco 492x436 - Blog
Routing With IS-IS Protocol - Part 3 (IS-IS Packet Types)

IS-IS Packet Types IS-IS Protocol uses L2 encapsulation Ethernet 802.3/802.2. It do not use Ethernet II. Ethernet II is used for IP traffic. IS-IS Protocol exchanges protocol information by using…


ISIS-address-format-ipcisco
Routing With IS-IS Protocol - Part 2 (IS-IS Addresses)

IS-IS Protocol Addresses IS-IS (Intermediate System to Intermediate System) Protocol was developed as a OSI network protocol, not TCP/IP. So, normally IS-IS Protocol not uses IP address, but it uses…


basic-is-is-topology-ipcisco
Routing With IS-IS Protocol - Part 1

Routing With IS-IS Protocol IS-IS (Intermediate System to Intermediate System Protocol is a Link-State routing protocol that is developed by ANSI ISO. It is an open standard and classless Interior…


cisco xr bundle topology ipcisco 715x306 - Blog
Link Aggregation on Cisco IOS XR

Link Aggregation on Cisco IOS XR Link aggregation, LAG, Bundle, EtherChannel, what ever you say, they have the same logic in real. So, the configuration logic of Link Aggregation (LAG)…


cisco-vpls-configuration-example-ipcisco
Cisco VPLS Configuration

Cisco VPLS Configuration In this article we will focus on the VPLS (Virtual Private LAN Service) configuration on Cisco device . We will use the below VPLS (Virtual Private LAN…


basic-vpls-architecture-ipcisco
VPLS Versus h-VPLS

VPLS Versus h-VPLS VPLS (Virtual Private LAN Service) and h-VPLS (Hierarhical VPLS) has some common and different properties. So they have different aadvantages and disadvantages.In this article, we will focus…


h vpls architecture ipcisco 625x548 - Blog
Hierachical-VPLS (H-VPLS)

H-VPLS (Hierarchical VPLS) H-VPLS (Hierarchical VPLS) is the more scalable version of VPLS. Basically, H-VPLS has some architectural difference than flat VPLS. VPLS Architecture, Flat VPLS In H-VPLS, there are…


bgp-med
BGP Path Attributes - MED

BGP Path Attributes - MED MED (Multi Exit Discriminator) attribute is the BGP Path attribute which provides information to the external neighbours, about how to come their Autonomous System. This…


bgp-path-attribute-origin-ipcisco
BGP Path Attributes - Origin

BGP Path Attributes - Origin The Origin attribute informs the Autonomous Systems (AS) about the originator of that route. It is a Well-Known Mandatory BGP Path attribute. It is supported…


as-path-topology
BGP Path Attributes - AS Path

BGP Path Attributes - AS Path AS Path is another Well-Known and Mandatory BGP Path attribute. Here, as we have discusssed before, Well-Known means “it is supported by every BGP…


bgp-path-attribute-local-preference-ipcisco-
BGP Path Attributes - Local Preference

BGP Path Attributes - Local Preference In BGP Path selection algorithm, if your device is a different vendor product (not Cisco), the first BGP Path Attribute that is taken into…


bgp-path-attribute-weight-ipcisco
BGP Path Attributes - Weight

BGP Path Attributes - Weight Weight attribute is a Cisco proprietary attribute that is the first step in the BGP Best Path selection algorithm. In Cisco devices, BGP firstly check…


lldp-neighbour-discovery
Neighbour Discovery Protocols - Part 6 ( LLDP Cisco Configuration)

LLDP Cisco Configuration To understand LLDP better, let’s check the configure of LLDP on the Cisco IOS. The most important commands related with LLDP configuration is showed below.   LLDP…


lldp-med
Neighbour Discovery Protocols - Part 5 ( LLDP-MED )

LLDP-MED (Link Layer Discovery Protocol-Media Endpoint Discovery) As a standard and open protocol, LLDP is a good protocol. After the development of LLDP, some of the additional properties needed especially…


CDP Packet Tracer Example
Neighbour Discovery Protocols - Part 4 (CDP Configuration with Packet Tracer)

CDP Configuration with Packet Tracer As we talked about in the previous article, CDP is Cisco specific. In this article, we will discuss how to configure the CDP in Cisco…


network-neighbour-discovery-
Neighbour Discovery Protocols - Part 3 ( CDP )

Cisco Discovery Protocol (CDP) CDP (Cisco Discovery Protocol) is a Cisco specific neighbour discovery protocol works on Layer 2. CDP (Cisco Discovery Protocol) is also licensed to run on some…


how-lldp-works
Neighbour Discovery Protocols - Part 2 ( LLDP )

LLDP (Link Layer Discovery Protocol) LLDP (Link Layer Discovery Protocol) is a Standard Neighbour Discovery Protocol that is used by all vendors. Like all other Neighbour Discovery Protocols, LLDP works…


neighbour discovery protocols 467x443 - Blog
Neighbour Discovery Protocols - Part 1

Neighbour Discovery Protocols Neigbour Discovery Protocols provides directly connected devices to discover and collect information about each other. Network devices can provide directly connected neighbour device’s identification, configuration and any…


rip-configuration-example
RIP Configuration With Packet Tracer

RIP Configuration With Packet Tracer In this article, we will focus on how to configure RIP (Routing Information Protocol) on Cisco Routers. Generally in all network courses, RIP is used…


routing-with-rip
Routing With RIP (Routing Information Protocol)

Routing With RIP (Routing Information Protocol)   RIPv2 Overview RIP (Routing Information Protocol) is a Distance Vector Routing Protocol. It is the simplest Routing Protocol. So, Routing with RIP is…


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How Will Be Our Lifes With IoT ?

IoT (Internet of Things) will create values in many parts of our lifes. From home to work, city to urban IoT will provide us many user friendly and effective applications.…


foto3 529x467 - Blog
The Future Technolgy : Internet of Things (IoT)

IoT is the abbreviation of Internet of Things. And Internet of Things is basically connecting IP available devices (even if they are not computers) over internet and letting them to…


packet-tracer-vlan-topology
Packet Tracer VLAN Configuration Example

Packet Tracer VLAN configuration As an example, you can see a VLAN topology below. In this topology, 2 Cisco Catalyst 2950-24 switches and 6 PCs are used.   Packet Tracer…


vlan-topology
How to Configure Cisco VLANs

How to Configure Cisco VLANs To Configure Cisco VLAN, firstly create the VLAN with the VLAN ID and then give it a name; (The standard VLAN number range is 1…


vlan frame tagging protocols
DTP and VLAN Frame Tagging protocols ISL, dot1.q

DTP and VLAN Frame Tagging Protocols (ISL and dot1.q) VLAN Frame Tagging Protocols (ISL and dot1.q) There are two types of frame tagging protocols. These are : - ISL(Inter-Switch Link)…


vlan port assignment
VLAN Port Assignment and VLAN Port Types

VLAN Port Assignment VLANs can be assigned statically and dynamically. Static configuration is more common, but dynamic is also used. Static VLAN assignment is like its name. You will statically…


vlans
VLANs (Virtual Local Area Networks)

VLANs (Virtual Local Area Networks) VLANs(Virtual Local Area Networks) are the virtual networks that you can seperate big networks into smaller networks. This can be done for reducing broadcast traffic,…


5620 Service Avare Manager
Alcatel-Lucent 5620 SAM (Service Avare Manager)

Alcatel-Lucent 5620 SAM (Service Avare Manager) Alcatel-Lucent 5620 Service Aware Manager (SAM) is the network and service management application of Alcatel-Lucent. It is generally used on service providers’s big netwoks…


BGP - Part 4 (BGP Administrative Distance and BGP Path Attributes)

BGP Administrative Distance As you know routing protocols have Administrative Distance values for preferability.And different vendors have different AD values for the same routing protocols.This is also valid for BGP.…


bgp-ibgp-ebgp
BGP - Part 2 (BGP Peers, BGP Sessions, BGP Messages)

BGP Peers, BGP Sessions and BGP Messages What is BGP peer? To use BGP, the neighbourship between the BGP routers must be established. You can use the statement BGP neighbour…


border gateway protocol
BGP - Part 1

BGP (Border Gateway Protocol) AS you know there are two types of routing protocols in general. These are IGP(Interor Gateway Protocols) and EGP(Exterior Gateway Protocols). In the previous posts we…


bgp-ibgp-ebgp
BGP - Part 3 (IBGP, IBGP Topologies and EBGP)

IBGP and EBGP In the previous post, we have talked about BGP generally. In this post we will handle IBGP and EBGP detailed.   IBGP and EBGP  IBGP (Internal Border…


traffic-flow-without-ECMP
ECMP (Equal Cost Multi Path)

ECMP (Equal Cost Multi Path) If the total IGP cost to a destination are same for two path, these paths are called Equal Cost Multi Path. Normally if there are…


LDP-configuratio
LDP Configuration on Nokia Routers

LDP Configuration on Nokia Routers To do an LDP configuration example, we will use the below basic topology. Here, we will configure these two routers to become an LDP peer…


label-distribution-and-traffic-flow
MPLS Label Distribution Protocol, LDP - Part 2

Label Distribution After LDP session establishment, labels are distributed from the Tail-End router to the Head-End router for each prefix. This process occurs at the opposite direction of the data…


transport tunnel service tunnel
MPLS Label Distribution Protocol, LDP - Part 1

MPLS Label Distribution Protocol, LDP LDP (Label Distribution Protocol) is one of the two label exchange protocols of MPLS. The other is RSVP (Resource Reservation Protocol). And there is also…


lte_a_carrier_aggregation
LTE Advanced (LTE-A) Features

LTE Advanced (LTE-A) Features As you know after LTE, LTE-A (LTE Advanced) is the next step of mobile technology. In this article, I will try to explain this LTE-A (LTE…


2g 3g network view
4G – LTE (Long Term Evolution)

4G LTE (Long Term Evolution) As you know mobile telecommunication has evolved for years. With this evolution, new network elements were included or the existing ones were upgraded. Startig with…


OSPF Area Types 3
OSPF Area Types on Packet Tracer (Stub Area, Totally-Stub Area, NSSA, Totally NSSA)

OSPF Stub Area, Totally-Stub Area, NSSA and Totally NSSA In the previous posts we had talked about Standard and Bacbone Area types of OSPF beside Virtual-links. In this article, we…


OSPF Area Types
OSPF Area Types on Packet Tracer (OSPF External Routes)

OSPF External Routes Example on Cisco Packet Tracer As you know External Routes are the routes that provide connection to the other networks working with different IGP. Here, we are…


ospf area types
OSPF Area Types on Packet Tracer (Standard Area, Backbone Area)

OSPF Backbone Area, Standard Area and Vitual-Links In this article series we will concentrate on OSPF Area Types and their configuration examples on Packet Tracer. You can DOWNLOAD the Packet…


VPRN Example Topology
VPRN Configuration on Nokia Service Routers

VPRN Configuration on Nokia Service Routers In this post, we will focus on the configuration of VPRN service on Alcatel-Lucent Service Routers. Here, We will use Alcatel-Lucent 7450 Service Router…


Logical-view-of-VPRN
VPRN (Virtual Private Routed Network)

VPRN (Virtual Private Routed Network) VPRN Overview VPRN (Virtual Private Routed Network) is a Multipoint-to-Multiponit Layer 3 VPN Service that connects multiple branches in a single logical routed architecture over…


vpls
VPLS Configuration on Nokia Service Routers

VPLS Configuration on Nokia Service Routers Before any Service configuration, our IGP configuration must be done and the network must be converged. We had talked about this preparations in the…


vpls architecture
VPLS (Virtual Private LAN Service)

VPLS (Virtual Private LAN Service) VPLS is a Multipoint-to-Multipoint Layer 2 VPN Service that connects multiple branches of a Customer, in a single logical switched architecture over Service Provider IP/MPLS…


sevice-core-network-topology
Network Preparation for Nokia L2 VPN and L3 VPN Services

Network Preparation for Nokia (Alcatel-Lucent) L2 VPN and L3 VPN Services In the first part of this article series we talked about service terms and some steps about service creation…


Logical-view-of-IES
Nokia L2 VPN and L3 VPN Services

Nokia L2 VPN and L3 VPN Services In this article we will talk about Service types used in Alcatel-Lucent Service Routers. Why Alcatel-Lucent use "Service Router" term for their service…


Alcatel-Lucent-Service-Routers-Service-Logic
Nokia VPN Service Terms and Creation Steps

Nokia VPN Service Terms and Creation Steps Service perspective is a Alcatel-Lucent's view for providing internet and VPN services to the customers. There are many services in Alcatel-Lucent Service Routers.…


VPN-Labels
Nokia VPN Services Tunnel Structure

Nokia VPN Services Tunnel Structure In this article I want to tell you about the tunnels used for services that is set up via MPLS. Here there are some key…


Link-Aggregation-Nokia
Link Aggregation – Part 4 (LAG Configuration on Alcatel-Lucent Devices)

LAG Configuration on Alcatel-Lucent Devices In the previous article we focus on how to configure link aggregation on Cisco and Juniper devices. Here we will see how is this configuration…


Link-Aggregation-Juniper
Link Aggregation – Part 3 (LACP Configuration on Juniper Devices)

LACP Configuration on Juniper Devices We have talked about LACP in the previous articles on Cisco Routers. Here we will focus on how to do this configuration on Juniper devices…


Link-Aggregation-Example
LACP Configuration on Cisco Devices

LACP Configuration on Cisco Devices In this article we will make a link aggregation protocol with two ports in one bundle. You can use more port up to 8 ports…


Link-Aggregation-Cisco
Link Aggregation – Part 1 (Link Aggregation Control Protocol, LACP)

Link Aggregation Control Protocol (LACP) Link aggregation is bundling two or more links as one logical link for increasing bandwidth and availability. This can be done by one of the…


common-cisco-router-configuration
Common Cisco Router Configuration on Packet Tracer

Common Router Configurationon Packet Tracer In this post, we will see how to configure a Cisco router basically with the help of Packet Tracer.This post will be an entrance to…


spanning-tree-configuration-example
STP (Spanning Tree Protocol) Example on Packet Tracer

STP (Spanning Tree Protocol) Example on Cisco Packet Tracer   In this post, instead of detaily talk about STP (Spanning Tree Protocol), we will focus on a basic Switching Loop…


rsvp-configuration-example
MPLS RSVP-TE Configuration on Nokia Routers

RSVP-TE Nokia (Alcatel-Lucent) Configuration Prerequisites and Configuring RSVP-TE - Configure IGP. - Enable MPLS context. - Enable RSVP context. - Configure interfaces for MPLS ( automatically RSVP). Let’s check these…


path message label request message
MPLS, RSVP-TE - Part 1

RSVP-TE (Resource Reservation Protocol-Traffic Engineering)     RSVP-TE(Resource Reservation Protocol-Traffic Engineering) is the enhanced RSVP for MPLS. RSVP-TE is not a real routing protocol, but it works with routing protocols.…


MPLS Label Distribution Protocol, LDP – Part 5 (Export and Import Policy, Prefix Aggregation)

Export and Import Policy and Prefix Aggregation with LDP LDP and Export Policy By default ALU only distribute a label only for its system addresses. To distribute additional other local…


transport tunnel service tunnel
MPLS Label Distribution Protocol, LDP – Part 6 (T-LDP)

T-LDP (Targeted Label Distribution Protocol) As we talked about, LSRs(P routers) are not service avare, they do not know anything about services. So they use only the outer label. But…


MPLS Label Distribution Protocol, LDP – Part 7 (CR-LDP)

CR-LDP (Contraint-based Routing LDP) Before discussing the CE-LDP, lets explaint “constraint-based routing” term. "Contraint-based Routing" is the routing which in which the routing process is done according to some constraints.…


switch port security
Switch Port Security Configuration with Cisco Packet Tracer

Switch Port Security Configuration with Cisco Packet Tracer In this article, we will focus on detailed Port Security configuration. For our Port Security configuration, we will use the below topology.…


switch port security
Switch Port Security - Part 1

Switch Port Security Port Security is the security mechanism used in switches. With Port Security mechanism, a specific port of a switch can be protected with undesirable access. The MAC…


next-hop-self
BGP Next Hop Self Command

BGP Next Hop Self Command In this post, we will talk about an important and mostly used command of BGP. This command is used under the BGP process in the…


Basic-BGP-Topology
BGP Configuration Example with Packet Tracer

BGP Configuration Example with Packet Tracer To understand BGP (Border Gateway Protocol) better, we will make a basic Packet Tracer BGP Configuration example. Because of the limited numbers of commands…


ping command
Ping Command (Pinging Peers)

Ping Command Whenever other engineers see network engineers during troubleshooting, they think that, network engineers only ping from one node to another. But as you know a network engineer is…


mpls-point-of-local-repair-(PLR)-and-merge-point-(MP)
MPLS Protection and Restoration – Part 5 (Fast Reroute Protection Types)

Fast Reroute Protection Types Both One-to-One and Facility Backup can protect different network elements. And these can be achieved by two ways: - Node Protection : Protect against the failure…


mpls-point-of-local-repair-(PLR)-and-merge-point-(MP)
MPLS Protection and Restoration – Part 4 (Local Protection, Fast Reroute)

MPLS Local Protection (Fast Reroute) The goal of the protection is minimizing the down time. To do this, protection must be done near to the failure. Local protection does this.…


MPLS Strict Path
MPLS Protection and Restoration – Part 3 (Path Diversity in Secondary Paths)

Path Diversity in Secondary Paths As we say in the following articles, while using Secondary LSP-Paths, sharing links between Primary and Secondary LSP-Paths must be avoided. We can say this…


mpls-end-to-end-protection-primary-path-and-secondary-path
MPLS Protection and Restoration – Part 2 (End-to-End Protection, Secondary Paths)

Protection Types There are some different types traffic protections. In general we can divide these types into two groups. End-to-end Protection and Local Protection. End-to-end Protection is using Secundary LSP-Paths…


mpls-protected-path-and-backup-path
MPLS Protection and Restoration – Part 1

MPLS Protection and Restoration, MPLS Recovery   As you know, we can prioritize some of the traffic with MPLS-TE because of their nature. The high priority can be given to…


MPLS Protection and Restoration – Part 9 (MPLS Convergence Factors)

MPLS Convergence Factors After the link failure in MPLS network, there are some actions need to be done orderly for MPLS recovery. This actions need to converge the MPLS network…


MPLS Protection and Restoration – Part 8 (Actions After the Failure)

MPLS Recovery, Actions After the Failure What Happens After the Failure Recovered By Fast Reroute (FRR) ? After detecting the failure in an MPLS network, in Fast Reroute (FRR) mechanism,…


MPLS Protection and Restoration – Part 7 (Verification Commands on Alcatel-Lucent Routers)

MPLS Recovery, Secondary Paths Verification   In the Alcatel-Lucent 7750 Service Routers, we can verify the Secondary LSP-Path configuration with the following commands. Verifying secondary LSPs use the following commands:…


RSVP-Objects
MPLS Protection and Restoration – Part 6 (RSVP Objects Used for MPLS Fast Reroute)

RSVP Objects Used for MPLS Fast Reroute There some RSVP Objects used in Fast Reroute(FRR). Beside this, RSVP-TE extend for this purposes. There are also some extensions on RSVP-TE for…


MPLS Protection and Restoration – Part 13 (Juniper Configuration Samples)

Node-Link Protection Configuration [edit] user@R1# edit protocols mpls label-switched-path lsp-path-name [edit] user@R1# edit protocols mpls label-switched-path lsp2-A-to-B To configure node-link protection for the LSP... [edit protocols mpls label-switched-path lsp-path-name] user@R1#…


MPLS Protection and Restoration – Part 12 (Juniper Configuration Samples)

Link Protection Configuration [edit] user@R1# edit protocols rsvp interface type-fpc/pic/port [edit] user@R1# edit protocols rsvp interface fe-1/1/1 To configure link protection for the interface... [edit protocols rsvp interface type-fpc/pic/port] user@R1#…


MPLS Protection and Restoration – Part 11 (Juniper Configuration Samples)

Juniper Configuration Samples for Protection One-to-one (fast reroute) backup Configuration To enter edit mode... [edit] user@R1# edit protocols mpls To configure the LSP... [edit protocols mpls] user@R1# set label-switched-path lsp-path-name…


MPLS Protection and Restoration – Part 10 (Juniper Configuration Samples)

Juniper Configuration Samples for Protection One-to-one (Fast Reroute) configuration on JuNOS [edit] protocols { mpls { label-switched-path lsp-path-name { fast-reroute; } } } Many-to-one (Facility Backup) Link protection configuration on…


Global Mobile Data Traffic Forecast by Cisco (2014–2019)

In this post, you can find several important points about mobile data traffic growth between 2014 and 2019. This summary info will provide you a general view on mobile data…


vlan-translation-single-tag
VLAN Mapping (VLAN Translation) on Juniper

VLAN Translation on Juniper JUNOS On Juniper devices, VLAN translation term is used for mentioning the swap of incoming VLAN id to a new VLAN id. In the below configuration…


vlan-translation-cvlan-and-svlan
VLAN Mapping (VLAN Translation) on Cisco

VLAN Mapping on Cisco IOS On Cisco devices, VLAN mapping term is used for mentioning the swap of incoming VLAN id to a new VLAN id. In the below configuration…


vlan-mapping-vlan-translation
VLAN Mapping (VLAN Translation)

VLAN Mapping (VLAN Translation) In the different locations of the customer, the same VLAN tag means the same. But there is a service provider network between the customer locations. Customers…


Port-address-translation-pat
PAT Configuration with Packet Tracer

PAT Configuration with Cisco Packet Tracer In some cases there can be hundreds of inside local addresses and at the same time your global ip addresses can be limited.At this…


Dynamic nat
Dynamic NAT Configuration with Packet Tracer

Dynamic NAT Configuration with Cisco Packet Tracer Before this article, we have talked about Static NAT configuration. Here, we will talk about Dynamic NAT configuration on Packet Tracer. As in…


Static NAT
Static NAT Configuration with Packet Tracer

Static NAT Configuration with Cisco Packet Tracer In this example we will configure Static NAT (Network Address Translation) on Packet Tracer. For our Static NAT configuration, we will use the…


network address translation, NAT
NAT – Part 1 (Network Address Translation)

NAT (Network Address Translation) The increase of the internet users has consumed IPv4 addresses rapidly. And to continue with these addresses various techniques have used by organizations. One of them…


ospf-virtual-link-topology-k
Routing with OSPF - Part 7

Other Main OSPF Lessons In htis article, we will talked about the remainning main lessons of OSPF. These small but important lessons are : • OSPF Router ID • OSPF…


ospf-network-types-k
Routing with OSPF – Part 6

OSPF Network Types OSPF Protocol can work in different network topologies. Some of these Network types are Standard and Some of them is Cisco Proprietary. Mainly,these networks types are given…


ospf-lsa-types-and-advertisements-k
Routing with OSPF – Part 5 (OSPF Area Types)

OSPF Area Types OSPF uses an hierarchical architecture and build OSPF network with different Areas. There are many specific Area types that are used with OSPF and these Area types…


lsa-types-of-ospf-k
Routing with OSPF – Part 4 (OSPF LSA Types)

OSPF LSA Types In OSPF Link-State information, in other words,Routing information is exchanged between routers. This exchange is done with LSAs (Link State Advertisements). There are eleven different LSA types…


ospf-packet-types
Routing with OSPF – Part 3 (OSPF Packet Types)

OSPF Packet Types OSPF use OSPF Packet sto communicate and establish OSPF Operation. There are different Packet types in OSPF and in this article, we will focus on these OSPF…


ospf-virtual-link
Routing with OSPF – Part 2 (OSPF Adjacency)

OSPF Adjacency OSPF Adjacency States Routers establish OSPF adjacency to use OSPF. From the beginning of the establishment to the full adjacency, there are some states. These states are mentioned…


ospf-router-types-k
Routing with OSPF - Part 1

Routing with OSPF OSPF Overview OSPF(Open Shortest Path First) is a Link-State Routing Protocol. It is also Classless and an Open, Standard Protocol used by all vendors. OSPF uses Dijsktra…


TCP Header MSS and MTU
TCP Header Part – 5

TCP Options The last part of this article series is related to TCP options. After this there is aleady the data part. In this section there are some options that…


TCP Header window calculation
TCP Header Part – 4

TCP Window Size, Checksum & Urgent Pointer The window, checksum and urgent pointer are another important fields in TCP header. Each of these fields are 2 bytes long. Window Size…


Subnetting in IPv6

Subnetting in IPv6 I think you are familiar with subnetting from IPv4. It was not so diffeccult. But in IPv6 the addresses are very hight, so IPv6 subnettinis a bit…


Global-Unicast-IPv6-Address-2
IPv6 Address Types

IPv6 Address Types IPv6 has some similar and some different address types than IPv4. There are still unicast addresses in IPv6 world but this time there will be one more…


What does IPv6 bring?

What does IPv6 bring? The new ip protocol, ipv6 protocol comes with some new features beside it. The features that come with IPv6 are: • Longer address space, • New…


IPv6 Interface ID with EUI64 Format
IPv6 and IPv6 Addresses

IPv6 and IPv6 Addresses IPv4 is most widespread implementation of IP protocol. It has 32 bit adress space, so it allow to use almost 232=4,294,967,296 addresses in internet. Because of…


ospfv3-versus-ospfv2-ipcisco
IPv6 Routing Protocols – Part 2 (OSPFv3)

OSPFv3 (Open Shortest Path First Version 3) OSPFv3 is a new version of OSPFv2 protocol that is developed for IPv6. The previous version, OSPFv4 was only used for IPv4. With…


ipv4 ipv6 routing protocols transition
IPv6 Routing Protocols – Part 1

IPv6 Routing Protocols IPv4 and IPv6 Protocol Comparison Routing is a process that we route packets in a network as static or dynamic. Static routing is done manually and dynamic…


IPTV network design
IPTV Overview– Part 2

Components of The IPTV System We can divide the IPTV compontents into 5 parts. These parts are defined below: National Head-End : Origination point of network broadcasts for tranmisssion over…


IPTV multicast
IPTV Overview– Part 1

IPTV Overview IPTV with its long name Internet Protocol Television is a television system that this service is delivered using the IP suite over a packet-switched network like internet. Traditionally,…


Ethernet collision
Ethernet Collisions and Troubleshooting

Ethernet Collisions and Troubleshooting In this article, we will focus on ethernet collisions and how to troubleshoot these common situations. Let’s start with, what is collision. In computer networking Collision…


Juniper-Static-Routing-Example
IPv6 Static Routes (On Juniper Routers)

IPv6 Static Routes (On Juniper Routers) On Juniper routers to create a static route for IPv6 we use “routing-options” hierarchy as IPv4. But this time after this hierarchy, we go…


cisco-static-routing-example
IPv6 Static Routes (On Cisco Routers)

IPv6 Static Routes (On Cisco Routers) On Cisco routers to create a static route for IPv6, we use the similar commands with IPv4. We can make this configuration with three…


packet tracer vtp topology
VTP Configuration with Packet Tracer

VTP Configuration with Packet Tracer In this article, we will focus on how to configure VTP, with Packet Tracerç To configure VTP, we will use the topology below with two…


VTP, VLAN Trunking Protocol
VTP (VLAN Trunking Protocol)

VTP (VLAN Trunking Protocol) VTP is a layer 2 protocol that allows to control, create and delete VLANs from a central vtp server. Cisco swithes are in “vtp server mode”…


snmp configuration on juniper
SNMP - Part 3 (Configuration On Juniper Junos)

SNMP Configuration On Juniper Junos We begin the SNMP configuration with Cisco devices and here, we will continue how to configure a Juniper device for SNMP. In this article we…


snmp configuration example on cisco
SNMP Configuration On Cisco IOS

SNMP Configuration On Cisco IOS In this SNMP Configuration example, we will see how to configure SNMP on Cisco SNMP Agent device. In this part I do not consider necessary…


MPLS Enabling on Cisco IOS
Enabling MPLS On Cisco Routers

Enabling MPLS On Cisco Routers In this article, we will study how to enable CEF, how to enable MPLS and how to configure label protocol ldp on Cisco routers. During…


tcp header
TCP Header Part – 3

TCP Flags Each TCP segment has a special purpose and this is determined by flags.Here we will study on 6 important control flags. There are also other options in flag…


TCP Header
TCP Header Part – 1

TCP Header Part In this section, we will survey the TCP header in packets. As you know TCP is a layer 4 protocol and its header is also have parameters…


TCP Header seq ack
TCP Header Part – 2

Sequence & Acknowledgement Number Sequence and acknowledgement fields are another important fields in tcp header.Each of these fields are 32 bits long. Datas generally sent and received with packets larger…


Nokia-default-and-floating-routing
Default Routes and Floating Static Routes on Alcatel Routers

Default Routes and Floating Static Routes Default Routes Default routes are the routes that used by a router when there is no other route is known for a destination address.…


Alcatel static route configuration
Static Routing with Alcatel-Lucent Service Routers

Static Routing with Nokia (Alcatel-Lucent )Service Routers   As you know Alcatel-Lucent is another network device vendor like Cisco and Juniper. Here, we will see the static route configuration with…


cisco forecast
Cisco Global Cloud Index (2010-2015)

Cisco Global Cloud Index (2010-2015) In Cisco’s Global Cloud index, Cisco explore the trends and make the next 5 years datacenter virtualization and cloud computing forecasts. The key points in…


SNMP Configuration on Cisco Routers

SNMP Configuration Commands for Cisco Routers           There are a number of commands can be used to configure SNMP on a Cisco device. Some of these…


Frame Relay Map
Basic Frame-Relay Configuration with both Inverse-ARP and Frame-Relay Map Command

Basic Frame-Relay Configuration with Both Inverse-ARP and Frame-Relay Map Command   Here, we will talk about two options for configuring Frame-Relay Maps. One is Inverse-ARP and the other is with…


Basic Multipoint Frame Relay Configuration
Basic Multipoint Frame Relay Configuration

Basic Multipoint Frame Relay Configuration on Cisco Here, in multipoint Frame-Relay configuration, we will use the same Cisco 3600 series routers and a frame relay switch. But here, our configuration…


Basic Frame Relay Point-to-Point Configuration

Basic Frame Relay Point-to-Point Configuration on Cisco AS you know Frame-Relay is a well-known WAN technology that generally used for backbone routers. To understand the basic configuration of Frame-Relay, there…


Juniper Static Configuration
Static Route Configuration on Juniper Routers

Static Route Configuration on Juniper Routers In this article we will focus on static route configuration on Juniper routers. Here, we will use Juniper JuNOS and we will be familiar…


GSM Edge TEchnology
Evolution from 2G to LTE (Part 3 – EDGE)

Evolution from 2G to LTE (Part 3 – EDGE) Beyond GPRS, EDGE(Enhanced Data rates for GSM Evolution) takes the cellular community one step closer to UMTS. It provides higher data…


GPRS Topology
Evolution from 2G to LTE (Part 2 – GPRS)

Evolution from 2G to LTE (Part 2 – GPRS) The evolution had started with additional of the packet switched network to the GSM network architecture. And this new technology called…


GSM to LTE
Evolution from 2G to LTE (Part 1 – GSM)

Evolution from 2G to LTE (Part 1 – GSM) The evolution of the 2G technology to LTE technology is in three types: Technical evolution : The new network elements are…


DHCP Configuration example
Router DHCP Configuration with Packet Tracer

Router DHCP Configuration with Packet Tracer Before start-up I want to give some basic information about DHCP. As you know DHCP use UDP 67 and 68 ports. It has a…


access-lists, pacl,racl,vacl
Access Control Lists for Traffic Control

Access Control Lists for Traffic Control There are various ways for network traffic control. One of the common ways for this job is using Access Contorol Lists. There are three…


MPLS Header
What is MPLS?

What is MPLS? MPLS is a packet-forwarding technology which uses labels for data forwarding decisions.Over time, users in networks have increased and this big traffic has brougt high bandwidth and…


Basic JUNOS
Initial Configuration for Juniper Routers

Initial Configuration for Juniper Routers This article is telling about some of the initial configurations of Juniper Routers. Here are the steps that you will experience when you firstly start…


IPv4 Header
IPv4 and IPv6 Headers

IPv4 header...Currenly used but not in the future... IPv6 header...Todays and future ip header... Ipv4 Header Note: Some parts are shown irregular to emphasize the fields that is different in…


single area ospf
Cisco Single Area OSPF Configuration

Cisco Single Area OSPF Configuration OSPF (open shortest path first) protocol is a well-know routing protocol that is widely used today.To configure a netowork for OSPF properly there are some…


static routing
Static Route Configuration on Cisco Routers

Static Route Configuration on Cisco Routers To send the traffic to the destination we can use two types of routing. Static and dynamic routing. Static route tell the network devices…


router-password-recovery
Cisco Router Password Recovery

Cisco Router Password Recovery There are several reasons to recover a router’s enable password. For example you can forget the password or somebody might give a password that you don’t…


Ether Channel
EtherChannel Configuration

ETHERCHANNEL CONFIGURATION LAYER 3 ETHERCHANNEL Spanning-Tree blocks redundant links and avoid Layer 2 loops. Etherchannels load balance the traffic between the redundadnt links and uses the bandwidth more efficient. How…


IP (Internet Protocol)

IP is the primary netwok protocol that used for relaying packets across an internetwork. It is developed in the 1970s. In the network world it is commonly used with TCP(Transmission…