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Inter VLAN Routing Configuration Example

Router on Stick Configuration on Packet Tracer   VLANs are the virtual LANS that provide divide your big network, into smaller pieces. Many companies use to divide their networks into 

Border Gateway Protocol

AS you know there are two types of routing protocols in general. These are IGP(Interor Gateway Protocols) and EGP(Exterior Gateway Protocols). In the previous posts we have talked about some 

Nokia Router Logs

Router Logs are very important for a Network Engineer during troubleshooting. A good  Network Engineer, check the right logs and determine the required actions according to the logs. All the 

Huawei Router Interface Configuration

Huawei Router Interface Configuration   Huawei Router Interface Configuration is one of the first configuration that Junior Network Engineers learn on Huawei Routers. Here, we will show how to configure 

UDP (User Datagram Protocol)

Table of Contents UDP ProtocolWellknown UDP PortsUDP Header UDP Protocol UDP Protocol (User Datagram Protocol) is another Tranport Layer Protocol. It is simpler than TCP. We will also see the 

Ansible vs Puppet vs Chef

Ansible, Puppet and Chef Comparison   Network Automation is one of the most important focuses of Network World. To be one step further, it is very important to learn at 

Chef Overview

Table of Contents Chef Software Chef ComponentsChef Software Operation Chef Software Chef Software is an Automation Software like Ansible and Puppet that is developed by Opscode. It is written  by Ruby 

Puppet Overview

Table of Contents Puppet SoftwarePuppet Architecture and Puppet ComponentsHow Puppet Software Works?More on Manifests Puppet Software   Puppet Software is an another Configuration Management and Automation Software like Ansible that 

Ansible Overview

Table of Contents Ansible TutorialAnsible ArchitectureHow Ansible Works? Ansible Tutorial In this lesson, we will focus on Ansible. You can use this lesson as a brief Ansible Tutorial. Ansible is 

Network Automation Tools

Router and switch configurations are one of the most popular activities of a network engineer. Network engineers configure many network equipments during any commissioning, operational or troubleshooting activities. For a 

WAN Topology Types

WANs interconnect different networks over long distances. Various network topologies used to build a WAN network. The main topologies used on WANs are given below: Point-to-Point Topology Hub and Spoke 

Interpret JSON Encoded Data

JSON is the abbreviation of JavaScript Object Notation. It is a lightweight data interchange format that is user fiendly and easy readable by human or computers. So, you can easily 

Cisco DNA Center

Cisco DNA Center is a central Management and Automation software, an application , that is used as a Controller for Cisco DNA. It is used as a management platform for 

Cisco SD-Access

Software-Defined Access (SDA) is a new Local Area Network Architecture that uses Software Defined Networking with physical network devices. It is the last technology for Enterprises, that provide an efficient 

Data Serialization Languages: JSON, YAML, XML

Table of Contents Why We Use Data Serialization Languages?Data Serialization LanguagesJSON, YAML and XML Comparison Why We Use Data Serialization Languages? Applications use different programming languages. They store variables used 

Traditional Network Management versus Cisco DNA Center

In this lesson we will compare the traditional Cisco Prime Infrastructure (PI) Management and Cisco DNA Center Management. So what are the similarities and differences of these traditional and new 

IPv6 Floating Static Routes

As with IPv4, with IPv6 we use static routes. There is a default administrative distance of static routes. This is 1  for Cisco devices for both IPv4 and IPv6 static 

IPv4 Floating Static Routes

Floating Static Route Configuration On Cisco Routers   Floating Static Route is a Static Route that has a different Administrative Distance (Preference) that its default value. As you know, the 

Network Topology Architectures

In network designs, there are various Network topology architectures are used. In this lesson,n we will focus on rthese network topology architectures one by one. So, what will we learn 

WLAN Frequency Bands

WLAN Frequency Bands are the frequency ranges used in wireless communcation. Two frequncy bands are used in wireless communication. These are 2.4GHz and 5GHz Bands. Here, we will talk about 

Other Wireless Network Extention Types

Wireless networks can be extended for various reasons. This can be used for new users, to cover new locations, to increase wireless network capability. To do this, there are various 

Wireless Principles

Wireless communication is a communication type that is done over Radio Frequency (RF) Signals. As all communication types, here there is a sender and a receiver. Data can transfer thorugh 

Power Over Ethernet (PoE)

Power Over Ethernet (PoE) is a network technology with which electric power is carried over the cable that carries data. With this technology, Ethernet cables supply power to the devices 

Ethernet Collisions and Troubleshooting

Table of Contents Troubleshooting Ethernet Collisions, Speed, Duplex MismatchWhat is Collision?Defered CounterCollision CounterLate CollisionExcessive Collision Troubleshooting Ethernet Collisions, Speed, Duplex Mismatch What is Collision? Ethernet is one of the main 

Cisco DNA and Intent-Based Networking (IBN)

Table of Contents Cisco DNA (Digital Network Architecture)Cisco DNA ArchitectureIntent-Based Networking (IBN) Cisco DNA (Digital Network Architecture)   Cisco DNA (Digital Network Architecture) is a central platform of Cisco as 

Cisco NGFW and Cisco NGIPS

Table of Contents Cisco NGFW (Next Generation Firewalls)Cisco NGIPS (Next-Generation Intrusion Prevention System) Cisco NGFW (Next Generation Firewalls)   Firewalls are the important devices of a network that protect your 

Configuration Register

Table of Contents What is Configuration Register?Configuration Register 0x2102Config Register 0x2142How to Change Configuration Register? What is Configuration Register? Configuration Register is a special 16 bits value that can be 

IPv6 Static and Default Route Configuration

Table of Contents IPv6 Static Route Configuration on Cisco IOSIPv6 Default Route Configuration on Cisco IOS IPv6 Static Route Configuration on Cisco IOS As you know, static route is the 

Stateless Address Auto Configuration

Stateless Address Auto Configuration (SLAAC) is the IPv6 Auto Configuration technique that is done automatically on the hosts with the help of IP Prefixes coming from a router with Router 

IPv6 NDP (Neighbour Discovery Protocol)

Table of Contents What is IPv6 NDP?Router Discovery What is IPv6 NDP? IPv6 NDP (Neighbor Discovery Protocol) is the Protocol that provide Network Nodes’ Discovery as its name implies. In 

Loop Guard, Uplink Fast, Backbone Fast and UDLD

Table of Contents Loop Guard, Uplink Fast, Backbone Fast and UDLDLoop GuardUplink Fast Loop Guard, Uplink Fast, Backbone Fast and UDLD In this lesson, we will learn other STP Convergence 

Portfast, Root Guard, BPDU Filter and BPDU Guard

Table of Contents Portfast, Root Guard, BPDU Filter and BPDU GuardPortFastBPDU Guard Portfast, Root Guard, BPDU Filter and BPDU Guard   The are various mechanims used with STP to provide 

How Network Automation Impacts Network Management

Network World is developing rapidly. With these developments, network requirements has increased and new methodologies are also developed to overcome this improvement. One of the Technologies that help network World 

Cisco NTP Configuration

Table of Contents How to Configure NTP on Cisco?Time Zone ConfigurationDay Light Saving ConfigurationClock and Time ConfigurationSetting a Device as NTP ClientSetting a Device as NTP Server How to Configure 

NTP (Network Time Protocol)

Table of Contents NTP OverviewNetwork Time Protocol: Stratum Levels NTP Overview The time on the network devices are very important. In a network all the devices’ times need to be 

NTP (Network Time Protocol)

Table of Contents NTP OverviewNetwork Time Protocol: Stratum Levels NTP Overview The time on the network devices are very important. In a network all the devices’ times need to be 

Cisco NTP Configuration

Table of Contents How to Configure NTP on Cisco?Time Zone ConfigurationDay Light Saving ConfigurationClock and Time ConfigurationSetting a Device as NTP ClientSetting a Device as NTP Server How to Configure 

Key Configurations on EIGRP

Table of Contents Key Configurations on EIGRPEIGRP Route SummarizationPassive Interface EIGRP ConfigurationUnicast NeighboursEIGRP StubEIGRP Configuration Authentication Key Configurations on EIGRP EIGRP is an Enhanced Dynamic Routing Protocol that provide many methods 

Path Attributes: Weight

Table of Contents BGP Path Attributes – Weight AttributeBGP Weight Attribute Configuration ExampleUsing Neighbor CommandUsing AS-Path Acess-Lists BGP Path Attributes – Weight Attribute Weight Attribute is a Cisco proprietary BGP 

Path Attributes : Local Preference

Table of Contents What is BGP Local Preference Attribute?How to Assign BGP Local Preference to a Router? What is BGP Local Preference Attribute? In BGP Path selection algorithm, if your 

Path Attributes: AS Path

Table of Contents BGP AS Path AttributeWhat is AS Path Prepending? BGP AS Path Attribute AS Path Attribute is another Well-Known and Mandatory BGP Path Attribute. Here, as we have 

Path Attributes: Origin

The Origin attribute informs the Autonomous Systems (AS) about the originator of that route. It is a Well-Known Mandatory BGP Path attribute. It is supported in all BGP implementations and 

Path Attributes: MED

BGP MED (Multi Exit Discriminator) Attribute is the BGP Path attribute which provides information to the external neighbours, about how to come their Autonomous System. This is opposite of Local 

BGP

AS you know there are two types of routing protocols in general. These are IGP(Interor Gateway Protocols) and EGP(Exterior Gateway Protocols). In the previous posts we have talked about some 

BGP Peers, BGP Sessions and BGP Messages

Table of Contents What is BGP peer?BGP Session Establishment and Session States What is BGP peer? To use BGP, the neighbourship between the BGP routers must be established. You can 

IBGP versus EBGP

In the previous post, we have talked about BGP generally. In this post we will handle IBGP and EBGP detailed.   IBGP and EBGP  Table of Contents IBGP (Internal Border 

BGP Path Attributes

BGP Path Attributes BGP uses BGP Path Attributes to determine the Best Path to a destination. According to BGP Best Path Algorithm, BGP Path Attributes are used to determine the 

BGP Configuration Example

Table of Contents Packet Tracer BGP Configuration ExampleInterface Configurations for Packet Tracer BGP ConfigurationBGP Configurations for Packet Tracer BGP Configuration Packet Tracer BGP Configuration Example To understand BGP (Border Gateway 

EAPoL (Extensible Authentication Protocol over LAN)

EAPoL is the abbreviation of Extensible Authentication Protocol over LAN. EAPoL is a network authentication protocol used in 802.1x (Port Based Natwork Access Control). In other words, it is the 

802.1x (Port Based Network Access Control)

Table of Contents 802.1x (Port Based Network Access Control)802.1x RolesEAP and RADIUS Messages 802.1x (Port Based Network Access Control) 802.1x is a LAN Security Mechanism that provides port based access 

802.1x (Port Based Network Access Control)

Table of Contents 802.1x (Port Based Network Access Control)802.1x RolesEAP and RADIUS Messages 802.1x (Port Based Network Access Control) 802.1x is a LAN Security Mechanism that provides port based access 

BGP Community

Table of Contents BGP Community AttributeBGP Community FormatWell Known BGP CommunitiesNo-ExportNo-AdvertiseLocal-AS BGP Community Attribute BGP Community Attribute is an Optional Transitive BGP Path Attribute. With BGP Community Attribute, destinations are 

BGP Route Reflector

Table of Contents Why We Use BGP Route Reflectors?Route Reflector OperationBGP Route Reflector Router RolesHow many RRs are used in a BGP Topology?How Does Route Reflection Occurs? Why We Use 

BGP Confederation

Table of Contents What is a BGP Confederation?BGP Confederations Outside the ASHow to Prevent Loops in BGP Confederation? What is a BGP Confederation?   BGP Confederations is an another mechanism 

PVST+ and Rapid PVST+Configuration on Packet Tracer

Table of Contents PVST+ Configuration on Packet TracerDefining VLANs on the swithesSetting all switch interfaces as TrunkSetting STP Mode as PVST+Setting VLANs in STP TopologyVerification of PVST+ Configuration PVST+ Configuration 

PVST+ and Rapid PVST+Configuration on Packet Tracer

Table of Contents PVST+ Configuration on Packet TracerDefining VLANs on the swithesSetting all switch interfaces as TrunkSetting STP Mode as PVST+Setting VLANs in STP TopologyVerification of PVST+ Configuration PVST+ Configuration 

PVST+ and Rapid PVST+

Table of Contents PVST+ (Per VLAN Spanning Tree Plus)Rapid PVST+ (Rapid Per VLAN Spanning Tree Plus) PVST+ (Per VLAN Spanning Tree Plus)   PVST+ (Per VLAN Spanning Tree Plus) is a Cisco 

PVST+ and Rapid PVST+

Table of Contents PVST+ (Per VLAN Spanning Tree Plus)Rapid PVST+ (Rapid Per VLAN Spanning Tree Plus) PVST+ (Per VLAN Spanning Tree Plus)   PVST+ (Per VLAN Spanning Tree Plus) is a Cisco 

MST (Multiple Spanning Tree)

Table of Contents MST OverviewMST Region, MSTI, IST, CIST MST Overview MST (Multiple Spanning Tree) is the version of STP that allows multiple VLANs to a single instance. It is 

MST Configuration on Cisco

In this configuration example, we will learn How to Configure Spanning-Tree MST Mode on Cisco switches. BEfore, we have leared what is STP and MST. Now, we will learn Cisco 

MST Configuration on Cisco

In this configuration example, we will learn How to Configure Spanning-Tree MST Mode on Cisco switches. BEfore, we have leared what is STP and MST. Now, we will learn Cisco 

MST (Multiple Spanning Tree)

Table of Contents MST OverviewMST Region, MSTI, IST, CIST MST Overview MST (Multiple Spanning Tree) is the version of STP that allows multiple VLANs to a single instance. It is 

Cisco SD-WAN Verification

Table of Contents Cisco SD WAN Verification CommandsHow to Display Active Control Plane Connections on vSmart Controllers?How to Display Active Control Plane Connections on vEdge Routers?How to Display Valid vSmart 

Cisco SD-WAN Verification

Table of Contents Cisco SD WAN Verification CommandsHow to Display Active Control Plane Connections on vSmart Controllers?How to Display Active Control Plane Connections on vEdge Routers?How to Display Valid vSmart 

Cisco vSmart Controller Configuration

Table of Contents How to Configure vSmart Controller?Connecting Cisco vSmart ControllerConfiguring System Name and IP AddressConfiguring Site IDConfiguring Domain IDConfiguring vBond Orchestrator IP AddressConfiguring Interface under VPN 0 How to 

Cisco vSmart Controller Configuration

Table of Contents How to Configure vSmart Controller?Connecting Cisco vSmart ControllerConfiguring System Name and IP AddressConfiguring Site IDConfiguring Domain IDConfiguring vBond Orchestrator IP AddressConfiguring Interface under VPN 0 How to 

Cisco vBond Initial Configuration

Table of Contents How to Configure vBond Orchestrator?Connecting Cisco vBond OrchestratorConfiguring System Name and IP AddressConfiguring vBond IP AddressConfiguring VPN 0 Interface How to Configure vBond Orchestrator? vBond Orchestrator comes 

Cisco vBond Initial Configuration

Table of Contents How to Configure vBond Orchestrator?Connecting Cisco vBond OrchestratorConfiguring System Name and IP AddressConfiguring vBond IP AddressConfiguring VPN 0 Interface How to Configure vBond Orchestrator? vBond Orchestrator comes 

Cisco SD-WAN Components

Table of Contents Cisco SD-WAN ComponentsvBondvManage Cisco SD-WAN Components In Cisco SD-WAN Architecture, there are main components work on different SD-WAN Architecture Planes. These SD WAN Components and their location 

Cisco SD-WAN Components

Table of Contents Cisco SD-WAN ComponentsvBondvManage Cisco SD-WAN Components In Cisco SD-WAN Architecture, there are main components work on different SD-WAN Architecture Planes. These SD WAN Components and their location 

SD-WAN Architecture

Table of Contents Cisco SD-WAN (Viptela SD-WAN) ArchitectureSD-WAN Orchestration PlaneSD-WAN Management PlaneSD-WAN Control Plane Cisco SD-WAN (Viptela SD-WAN) Architecture In SD-WAN Cisco (formerly SD-WAN Viptela), Cisco SD-WAN Architecture consist of 

SD-WAN Architecture

Table of Contents Cisco SD-WAN (Viptela SD-WAN) ArchitectureSD-WAN Orchestration PlaneSD-WAN Management PlaneSD-WAN Control Plane Cisco SD-WAN (Viptela SD-WAN) Architecture In SD-WAN Cisco (formerly SD-WAN Viptela), Cisco SD-WAN Architecture consist of 

IGMP Snooping

Table of Contents What is IGMP Snooping?How it Works? What is IGMP Snooping? IGMP Snooping is a Multicast mechanism that runs on Layer 2 switch. This mechanism checks the IGMP 

IGMP Configuration

In this configuration example, we will configure Cisco Catalyst Switch for IGMP (Internet Group Management Protocol). As you know IGMP is used to manage host memberships to the multicast groups. 

IGMP

Table of Contents What is IGMP?IGMP VersionsIGMPv1IGMPv2IGMPv3 What is IGMP? IGMP (Internet Group Management Protocol) is a Host-Router Multicast Signalling Protocol that provides dynamically registration of the hosts to the 

QoS Classification and Marking

To use Quality of Service for a traffic, firstly traffic need to be identified. With this identification, traffic types are classified and then they are marked with an understandable way 

QoS Policing and Shaping

In networks, the traffic increses for a variety of reasons. Some Quality of Service Adjustments are done to handle this increases. During these increases, if the capacity of the link 

QoS

Table of Contents What Does QoS Stand For?QoS Service Models What Does QoS Stand For? This is th most ask questions by Network Engineers, especially the Newbies, What Does QoS 

BFD Operation

Table of Contents How BFD Works?BFD ApplicationsProtocols Used With BFDDisadvantages of BFD How BFD Works? BFD (Bidirectional Forwarding Detection) mechanism uses packets to inform both ends that the protocol is 

Bidirectional Forwarding Detection

Table of Contents What is BFD?BFD Session Establishment What is BFD? BFD (Bidirectional Forwarding Detection) is basically another Hello protocol based on UDP that detects link failures on forwarding plane. 

Access Control Lists for Traffic Control

There are various ways for network traffic control. One of the common ways for this job is using Access Contorol Lists. There are three types of access lists used for 

Standard ACL Configuration With Packet Tracer

Table of Contents Packet Tracer Standard Access List ConfigurationStandard Access-List ConfigurationApplying Standard Access-List to the Interface Packet Tracer Standard Access List Configuration   In this lesson we will see Cisco 

Extended ACL Configuration Example

Table of Contents Packet Tracer Extended Access Lists ConfigurationExtended Access-List Configuration Packet Tracer Extended Access Lists Configuration In this lesson we will focus on Cisco Extended ACL Configuration with Cisco 

ERSPAN Configuration on Packet Tracer

Table of Contents Encapsulated Remote SPAN ConfigurationERSPAN Source Side ConfigurationERSPAN Destination Side Configuration Encapsulated Remote SPAN Configuration   Encapsulated Remote Switch Port Analyzer (ERSPAN) is another SPAN type that is 

Remote SPAN Configuration on Packet Tracer

Table of Contents Remote SPAN  ConfigurationRSPAN Config Under VLANSource Port and Destination VLAN Config (on source switch) Remote SPAN  Configuration   Remote Switch Port Analyzer (RSPAN) is another SPAN type 

Local SPAN Configuration on Packet Tracer

Table of Contents Cisco Local SPAN ConfigurationSource Port Configuration Cisco Local SPAN Configuration   Switch Port Analyzer (SPAN) is a mechanism which provide port/vlan analyze by mirroring one port/vlan  traffic 

Cisco SPAN Overview

Table of Contents Cisco SPAN OverviewWhat is Local SPAN (SPAN) ?What is Remote SPAN (RSPAN) ?What is Encapsualted Remote SPAN (ERSPAN) ? Cisco SPAN Overview SPAN  (Local Switched Port Analyzer) 

MPLS VPN Labelling

MPLS VPN Basics MPLS mechanims uses two types MPLS Label to accomplish MPLS VPN Services. These are the two tunnel mechanims in MPLS mechnism. A Tunnel and many sub service 

MPLS Basics

Table of Contents What is MPLS?MPLS BenefitsMPLS HeaderMPLS Terms What is MPLS? MPLS is a packet-forwarding technology which uses labels for data forwarding decisions.Over time, users in networks have increased 

MPLS Label Switching Mechanims

How MPLS Label Switching Works? MPLS Technology uses different routers for different roles. There are some common router types that are in these roles. The names of these routers are 

Enabling MPLS On Cisco Routers

In this article, we will study how to enable CEF, how to enable MPLS and how to configure label protocol ldp on Cisco routers. During this survey we will check 

WLAN Components

In Cisco, there are two types of Wireless Solutions. One of them is using only Autonomous Access Points and the other is using Light Weight Access Points (LWAP) with Wireless 

Wireless Network Design Models

Cisco has different Wireless Network Design Models for different types of networks. These Design of  Wireless Network Models are given below : Centralized Network Design FlexConnect Network Design SD-Access Network 

WLC Management Access Connections

To access a network device there are various methods. These network access methods are also used to access wireless components. So, here, we will talk about these access methods. Access 

TFTP, FTP, SFTP and SCP

Table of Contents TFTP, FTP, SFTP and SCPFTP (File Transfer Protocol)TFTP (Trivial File Transfer Protocol)SFTP (SSH File Transfer Protocol)SCP (Secure Copy Protocol)FTP vs TFTP, FTP vs SFTP, FTP vs SCPFTP 

Wireless Access Point Modes

Cisco Wireless Access Points can be used for different aims. We use some of them to connect host devices or we use them for troubleshooting activities. There are also other 

Wireless Security Protocols

Table of Contents What are the Wireless Security Protocols?WEP (Wired Equivalent Privacy)WPA (Wi-Fi Protected Access 1)WPA2 (Wi-Fi Protected Access 2)WPA3 (Wi-Fi Protected Access 3)Comparison of Wireless Security Protocols What are 

Subnetting

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TACACS Configuration

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RADIUS Configuration

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WLAN Configuration

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Config Register Configuration

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SSH Configuration

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Remote SPAN Configuration

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Local SPAN Configuration

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IPv6 Configuration

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DHCP Snooping Configuration

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Static NAT Configuration

https://vimeo.com/400074291/384811dcd5

Dynamic NAT Configuration

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PAT Configuration

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Standard ACL Configuration

https://vimeo.com/400070743/64bfe625d4

Extended ACL Configuration

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Dynamic ARP Inspection

Table of Contents What is Dynamic ARP Inspection?How Does DAI Work?Dynamic ARP Inspection Configuration What is Dynamic ARP Inspection?   Dynamic ARP Inspection (DAI) is the security mechanism that prevents 

Cyber Attacks, Network Attacks, Threats and Mitigation

Table of Contents Cyber Attacks, Network Attacks, Threats, Vulnerabilitis and MitigationDenial of Service (DoS) AttacksTCP SYN Flood AttackPing of DeathTeardrop AttackSmurfingMan-in-the-Middle Cyber AttacksSession Hijacking Cyber AttacksReplay Cyber AttacksIP SpoofingARP SpoofingDNS 

REST APIs

API is the abbreviation of Application Programming Interface. Different Applications use APIs to communicate each other. In this communication, they learn the other application’s variables, modify variables, create new variables  

Nokia TACACS Configuration

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Nokia Radius Configuration

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Nokia Log Configuration

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Nokia IP Filter Configuration

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Nokia Router Interface Configuration

https://vimeo.com/379969575/80ac3b6322

Nokia Card and MDA Provisioning

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Basic Nokia Router Configuration

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Basic Huawei Router Configuration

Table of Contents Huawei Router ConfigurationHuawei Help CommandHuawei Configuration ModeUseful ShortcutsChanging Router NameSetting Clock on Hauwei RoutersHuawei Router CLI MessagesRouter User Privilege LevelsRouter Telnet ConfigurationRouter Console ConfigurationHuawei CLI Adjustments Huawei 

Networking Connectors

In Network Cabling, beside cables, there are also Network Cable Connectors. There are different types of networking connectors are used for different purposes in network World. Here, we will see 

Subnetting Examples

Subnetting is basically dividing your network in different sub networks. By doing this, you can produce different broadcast networks with you one nework. You can do this with fixed length 

Radius Configuration for Wireless Users

Table of Contents Radius Configuration for Wireless UsersRADIUS Server ConfigurationWireless Router ConfigurationLaptop Configurations Radius Configuration for Wireless Users   In this Cisco Packet Tracer configuration example, we will configure RADIUS 

IPv6 Configuration on Cisco

Table of Contents IPv6 ConfigurationEnable IPv6 GloballyEnable IPv6 on InterfaceConfigure EUI-64 Format Global Unicast AddressConfigure Manual Link Local AddressIPv6 PingManual Link Local Address ConfigurationAuto IPv6 Address ConfigurationEnable DHCPv6 Client IPv6 

IPv6 Configuration on Cisco Routers

Table of Contents IPv6 ConfigurationEnable IPv6 GloballyEnable IPv6 on InterfaceConfigure EUI-64 Format Global Unicast AddressConfigure Manual Link Local AddressIPv6 PingManual Link Local Address ConfigurationAuto IPv6 Address ConfigurationEnable DHCPv6 Client IPv6 

IPv6 Configuration on Cisco Packet Tracer

Table of Contents IPv6 ConfigurationEnable IPv6 GloballyEnable IPv6 on InterfaceConfigure EUI-64 Format Global Unicast AddressConfigure Manual Link Local AddressIPv6 PingManual Link Local Address ConfigurationAuto IPv6 Address ConfigurationEnable DHCPv6 Client IPv6 

SSH Configuration on Packet Tracer

Table of Contents SSH ConfigIP ConfigsPassword EncryptionDomain Data EncryptionRouter User ConfigSSH Config SSH Config   SSH (Secure Shell) is one of the most used protocols in network World. As a 

Cisco RADIUS Server Configuration on Packet Tracer

In this Cisco Radius Configuration Example, we will configure Radius Server and a Cisco Router for RADIUS Authentication, for the users connected to the router via Cisco switch. For out 

Syslog Configuration Cisco

Table of Contents Syslog Configuration (Cisco)IP ConfigurationsSyslog Configuration Syslog Configuration (Cisco) In this Syslog Configuration Cisco example, we will learn How to do Syslog Configuration on Cisco Routers. Here, we 

PPPoE Configuration With Packet Tracer

Point-to-Point Protocol over Ethernet (PPPoE) is a network protocol which encapsulates PPP frames inside Ethernet. PPPoE is a Client/Server protocol and it allows divided multiple clients to use a single server 

DHCP Snooping Configuration on Packet Tracer

Table of Contents How to Configure DHCP Snooping on Cisco Switches?Interface ConfigurationsDHCP Pool CreationEnabling DHCP SnoopingSetting Tursted PortsSetting Rate Limit How to Configure DHCP Snooping on Cisco Switches? DHCP Snooping 

DHCP Option 82

Option 82 in DHCP is an additional security mechanism over DHCP Snooping. DHCP Options 82 is also known as ”DHCP Relay Agent Information”. This additonal security mechanism is used whenever 

DHCP Operation

Table of Contents How Does DHCP Achieve IP Allocation Operation?DHCP Discover MessageDHCP Offer MessageDHCP Request MessageDHCP Ack Message How Does DHCP Achieve IP Allocation Operation? DHCP does its job with 

How to Configure DHCP on Cisco Routers?

In this DHCP Cisco Packet Tracer router example, we will focus on DHCP Configuration in Cisco Packet Tracer. In other words, we will see how to configure a DHCP Server 

What is DHCP?

Table of Contents What is DHCP?DHCP IP Allocation MechanismsDHCP Devices and RolesDHCP MessagesAre There Any Other IP Allocation Protocol? What is DHCP? In a network all the Layer 3 devices 

What is DHCP Snooping?

DHCP is one of the most important protocols for our network. With DHCP we can configure IP configurations of our nodes in the network. This DHCP configurations can be done 

Configuration Register

Table of Contents What is Configuration Register?Configuration Register 0x2102Config Register 0x2142How to Change Configuration Register? What is Configuration Register? Configuration Register is a special 16 bits value that can be 

ERSPAN Configuration on Packet Tracer

Table of Contents Encapsulated Remote SPAN ConfigurationERSPAN Source Side ConfigurationERSPAN Destination Side Configuration Encapsulated Remote SPAN Configuration   Encapsulated Remote Switch Port Analyzer (ERSPAN) is another SPAN type that is 

Remote SPAN Configuration on Packet Tracer

Table of Contents Remote SPAN  ConfigurationRSPAN Config Under VLANSource Port and Destination VLAN Config (on source switch) Remote SPAN  Configuration   Remote Switch Port Analyzer (RSPAN) is another SPAN type 

Cisco SPAN Overview

Table of Contents Cisco SPAN OverviewWhat is Local SPAN (SPAN) ?What is Remote SPAN (RSPAN) ?What is Encapsualted Remote SPAN (ERSPAN) ? Cisco SPAN Overview SPAN  (Local Switched Port Analyzer) 

Local SPAN Configuration on Packet Tracer

Table of Contents Cisco Local SPAN ConfigurationSource Port Configuration Cisco Local SPAN Configuration   Switch Port Analyzer (SPAN) is a mechanism which provide port/vlan analyze by mirroring one port/vlan  traffic 

TACACS+ Configuration on Packet Tracer

Table of Contents Cisco TACACS+ ConfigurationIP ConfigurationsServer IP Address ConfigurationSwitch VLAN Interface IP ConfigurationPC and Laptop IP ConfigurationSwitch AAA TACACS+ ConfigurationEnabling AAASetting Username / PasswordSetting Authetication MethodAssigning TACACS ServerTelnet ConfigurationTACACS+ 

WLAN Configuration on Packet Tracer

Cisco WLAN Configuration WLANs (Wireless LANs) are very common in today’s World. Everywhere there are a lot of wireless networks. Even now, you are in many of these wireless signals. 

VPN Types and Protocols of VPN

Table of Contents VPN TypesRemote Access VPNSite to Site VPNProtocols of VPNInternet Protocol Security (IPSec)Layer 2 Tunneling Protocol (L2TP)Point to Pint Tunneling Protocol (PPTP)MPLS VPNSSTPIKEv2 VPN Types   VPN (Virtual 

VPN Types and Protocols of VPN

Table of Contents VPN TypesRemote Access VPNSite to Site VPNProtocols of VPNInternet Protocol Security (IPSec)Layer 2 Tunneling Protocol (L2TP)Point to Pint Tunneling Protocol (PPTP)SSTPIKEv2 VPN Types   VPN (Virtual Private 

BGP Confederation

Table of Contents What is a BGP Confederation?BGP Confederations Outside the ASHow to Prevent Loops in BGP Confederation? What is a BGP Confederation?   BGP Confederations is an another mechanism 

BGP Route Reflector

Table of Contents Why We Use BGP Route Reflectors?Route Reflector OperationBGP Route Reflector Router RolesHow many RRs are used in a BGP Topology?How Does Route Reflection Occurs? Why We Use 

BGP Community

Table of Contents BGP Community AttributeBGP Community FormatWell Known BGP CommunitiesNo-ExportNo-AdvertiseLocal-AS BGP Community Attribute BGP Community Attribute is an Optional Transitive BGP Path Attribute. With BGP Community Attribute, destinations are 

Ping Command in Linux

Table of Contents Ping Command in LinuxHow to use Ping on Linux?Linux Ping Command OptionsSpecifying the IP Versionping  -4ping  -6Ping With Soundping  -aPinging BroadcastPreventing Source Changeping  -BChanging the Number of 

IPv6 Link Local Address

Table of Contents What is IPv6 Link Local Address?What is the Prefix of Link Local Address?How can we configure Link Local Address?Link-Local Auto-Address Configuration What is IPv6 Link Local Address? 

SNMP Configuration on Huawei eNSP

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DHCP Relay Configuration on Huawei eNSP

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DHCP Configuration on Huawei eNSP

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Port Security Configuration on Huawei eNSP

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AAA Configuration on Huawei eNSP

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Link Aggregation Configuration on Huawei eNSP

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VLAN Configuration on Huawei eNSP

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RSTP Configuration on Huawei eNSP

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STP Configuration on Huawei eNSP

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GRE Configuration on Huawei eNSP

https://vimeo.com/403087144/cf160d2662

PPP CHAP Configuration on Huawei eNSP

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PPP PAP Configuration on Huawei eNSP

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HDLC Configuration on Huawei eNSP

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OSPFv3 Configuration on Huawei eNSP

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OSPFv2 Configuration on Huawei eNSP

https://vimeo.com/335271917/71801d8ae4

RIPng Configuration on Huawei eNSP

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RIPv2 Configuration on Huawei eNSP

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Floating and Default Routes on Huawei eNSP

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Static Route on Huawei eNSP

https://vimeo.com/403087096/49309325be

PVST+ and Rapid PVST+

Table of Contents PVST+ (Per VLAN Spanning Tree Plus)Rapid PVST+ (Rapid Per VLAN Spanning Tree Plus) PVST+ (Per VLAN Spanning Tree Plus)   PVST+ (Per VLAN Spanning Tree Plus) is a Cisco 

MLPPP Configuration on Cisco Packet Tracer

Packet Tracer MLPPP Configuration Example   In whe previous lesson, we have learned what is MLPPP. Here, we will focus on how to configure MLPPP. In this MLPPP Configuration example, 

What is MLPPP?

Table of Contents What is MLPPP?PPP Multilink Load BalancingPPP Multilink Fault ToleranceEasiness in Layer 3MLPPP FragmentationMLPPP in TCP/IP Model What is MLPPP?   MLPPP (Multilink Point-to-Point Protocol) is the protocol that 

EAPoL (Extensible Authentication Protocol over LAN)

EAPoL is the abbreviation of Extensible Authentication Protocol over LAN. EAPoL is a network authentication protocol used in 802.1x (Port Based Natwork Access Control). In other words, it is the 

802.1x (Port Based Network Access Control)

Table of Contents 802.1x (Port Based Network Access Control)802.1x RolesEAP and RADIUS Messages 802.1x (Port Based Network Access Control) 802.1x is a LAN Security Mechanism that provides port based access 

Huawei Port Security Configuration on Huawei eNSP

In this Huawei Port Security Configuration Example, we will configure Port Security on a Huawei switch. For our Huawei Port Security Configuration, we will use the below topology consist of 

IPv6 NDP (Neighbour Discovery Protocol)

Table of Contents What is IPv6 NDP?Router Discovery What is IPv6 NDP? IPv6 NDP (Neighbor Discovery Protocol) is the Protocol that provide Network Nodes’ Discovery as its name implies. In 

Stateless Address Auto Configuration

Stateless Address Auto Configuration (SLAAC) is the IPv6 Auto Configuration technique that is done automatically on the hosts with the help of IP Prefixes coming from a router with Router 

SLAAC

Stateless Address Auto Configuration (SLAAC) is the IPv6 Auto Configuration technique that is done automatically on the hosts with the help of IP Prefixes coming from a router with Router 

DHCPv6

Table of Contents Dynamic Host Configuration Protocol version 6DHCPv6 MessagesRouter Advertisement Flags Dynamic Host Configuration Protocol version 6 IP Allocation can be done with different mechanims in IPv6. Mainly, we 

DHCPv6 Overview

Table of Contents Dynamic Host Configuration Protocol version 6DHCPv6 MessagesRouter Advertisement Flags Dynamic Host Configuration Protocol version 6 IP Allocation can be done with different mechanims in IPv6. Mainly, we 

Stateless Address Auto Configuration

Stateless Address Auto Configuration (SLAAC) is the IPv6 Auto Configuration technique that is done automatically on the hosts with the help of IP Prefixes coming from a router with Router 

DHCPv6 Overview

Table of Contents Dynamic Host Configuration Protocol version 6DHCPv6 MessagesRouter Advertisement Flags Dynamic Host Configuration Protocol version 6 IP Allocation can be done with different mechanims in IPv6. Mainly, we 

Cisco NTP Configuration

Table of Contents How to Configure NTP on Cisco?Time Zone ConfigurationDay Light Saving ConfigurationClock and Time ConfigurationSetting a Device as NTP ClientSetting a Device as NTP Server How to Configure 

NTP (Network Time Protocol)

Table of Contents NTP OverviewNetwork Time Protocol: Stratum Levels NTP Overview The time on the network devices are very important. In a network all the devices’ times need to be 

NETCONF Operation Steps

Table of Contents NETCONF OperationsNETCONF Messages NETCONF Operations NETCONF Operation has three common steps. These steps are: • Session Establishment • Operation Request and Reply • Session Close Firstly, the 

MPLS Label Switching Operation

How MPLS LAbel Switching Works? MPLS Technology uses different routers for different roles. There are some common router types that are in these roles. The names of these routers are 

MPLS VPN Labelling Mechanism

MPLS mechanims uses two types MPLS Label to accomplish MPLS VPN Services. These are the two tunnel mechanims in MPLS mechnism. A Tunnel and many sub service tunnels in it. 

MPLS Overview

Table of Contents What is MPLS?MPLS BenefitsMPLS HeaderMPLS Terms What is MPLS? MPLS is a packet-forwarding technology which uses labels for data forwarding decisions.Over time, users in networks have increased 

Nokia MPLS VPN Services Tunnel Structure

In this article I want to tell you about the tunnels used for services that is set up via MPLS. Here there are some key points that you must know 

Network Preparation for Layer 2 VPN and Layer 3 VPN

In the first part of this article series we talked about service terms and some steps about service creation and the preparing the network for service creation. Here, in this 

Nokia MPLS VPN Terms and Creation Steps

Service perspective is a Nokia‘s view for providing internet and VPN services to the customers. In other words Nokia MPLS VPN is called as Services. There are many services in 

Nokia Layer 2 VPN and Layer 3 VPN Services

Table of Contents Nokia Layer 2/3 VPN ServicesIES (Internet Enhanced Service)VPWS (Virtual Private Wire Service)VPLS (Virtual Private LAN Service)VPRN (Virtual Private Routed Network) Nokia Layer 2/3 VPN Services In this 

VPWS (Virtual Private Wire Service)

Table of Contents What is VPWS?EpipeFpipeApipeCpipeIpipeVPWS SAP Encapsulations What is VPWS? VPWS (Virtual Private Wire Service) is Point-to-Point Layer 2 MPLS VPN Service of Nokia Service Routers. The other Layer 

VPRN (Virtual Private Routed Network)

Table of Contents VPRN OverviewLogical View of VPRNWhat is the benefits of Layer 3 VPN?VPRN RoutersA Simple MPLS Layer 3 VPN Example VPRN Overview   VPRN (Virtual Private Routed Network) 

VPLS (Virtual Private LAN Service)

What is VPLS? Nokia VPLS is a Multipoint-to-Multipoint Layer 2 VPN Service that connects multiple branches of a Customer, in a single logical switched architecture over Service Provider IP/MPLS network. 

NETCONF Protocol Stack

NETCONF Protocol Stack consist of four main layers. These NETCONF Protocol Stack are: • Content • Operations • Messages • Transport At the Content Layer, YANG Modeling is used fo 

Netconf Overview

Network Configuration Protocol (NETCONF) is a standard based IETF Network Configuration Management Protocol. With this Network Configuration Management Protocol, we can install, modify and remove the configuration of the network 

PAgP Configuration

Table of Contents Etherchannel ConfigurationLayer 3 Etherchannel with PAgP Etherchannel Configuration Layer 3 Etherchannel with PAgP Spanning-Tree blocks redundant links and avoid Layer 2 loops. Etherchannels load balance the traffic 

PAgP Configuration Example

Table of Contents Etherchannel ConfigurationLayer 3 Etherchannel with PAgP Etherchannel Configuration Layer 3 Etherchannel with PAgP Spanning-Tree blocks redundant links and avoid Layer 2 loops. Etherchannels load balance the traffic 

PAgP Configuration on Cisco Devices

Table of Contents Etherchannel ConfigurationLayer 3 Etherchannel with PAgP Etherchannel Configuration Layer 3 Etherchannel with PAgP Spanning-Tree blocks redundant links and avoid Layer 2 loops. Etherchannels load balance the traffic 

Extended ACL Configuration Example

Table of Contents Packet Tracer Extended Access Lists ConfigurationExtended Access-List Configuration Packet Tracer Extended Access Lists Configuration In this lesson we will focus on Cisco Extended ACL Configuration with Cisco 

Standard ACL Configuration With Packet Tracer

Table of Contents Packet Tracer Standard Access List ConfigurationStandard Access-List ConfigurationApplying Standard Access-List to the Interface Packet Tracer Standard Access List Configuration   In this lesson we will see Cisco 

Access Control Lists for Traffic Control

There are various ways for network traffic control. One of the common ways for this job is using Access Contorol Lists. There are three types of access lists used for 

Access Control Lists for Traffic Control

There are various ways for network traffic control. One of the common ways for this job is using Access Contorol Lists. There are three types of access lists used for 

Enabling MPLS On Cisco Routers

In this article, we will study how to enable CEF, how to enable MPLS and how to configure label protocol ldp on Cisco routers. During this survey we will check 

Ping Command

Table of Contents Ping Command and Ping Command OptionsPing Commands For WindowsPing Commands For Unix (Ping Command for Linux) Ping Command and Ping Command Options Whenever other engineers see network 

Ping Command

Table of Contents Ping Command and Ping Command OptionsPing Commands For WindowsPing Commands For Unix (Ping Command for Linux) Ping Command and Ping Command Options Whenever other engineers see network 

LACP Configuration on Juniper

How to Configure LACP on Juniper Routers   We have talked about LACP in the previous articles on Cisco Routers. Here we will focus on how to do LACP Configuration 

LACP Configuration on Juniper Devices

How to Configure LACP on Juniper Routers   We have talked about LACP in the previous articles on Cisco Routers. Here we will focus on how to do LACP Configuration 

Cisco VPLS Configuration

Table of Contents How to Configure VPLS on Cisco Routers?Cisco VPLS Configuration Steps How to Configure VPLS on Cisco Routers?   In this VPLS Example, we will focus on the 

Link Aggregation on Cisco IOS XR

Link aggregation, LAG, Bundle, EtherChannel, what ever you say, they have the same logic in real. So, the configuration logic of Link Aggregation (LAG) is not different than Ether Channel 

MVRP Configuration on Cisco

Table of Contents How to Configure MVRP on Cisco?Switch A Configuration How to Configure MVRP on Cisco? In this configuration example, we will focus on how to configure MVRP on 

MVRP

MVRP Overview MVRP (Multiple VLAN Registration Protocol) is the counterpart protocol of Cisco VTP and GVRP (GARP VLAN Registration Protocol). It is the last standard VLAN Registration Protocol, so it 

GVRP

Table of Contents GVRP OverviewGARP (Generic Attribute Registration Protocol)GARP PDU GVRP Overview GVRP(GARP VLAN Registration Protocol) is a protocol that is used to control VLANs, dynamic VLAN registration and VLAN 

GVRP Configuration on Cisco

Table of Contents How to Configure GVRP on Cisco?Switch A ConfgurationSwitch B Configuration How to Configure GVRP on Cisco? In this configuration example, we will focus on how to configure 

LACP Overview

Link Aggregation Control Protocol (LACP)   Link Aggregation is bundling two or more links as one logical link for increasing bandwidth and availability. This can be done by one of 

Link Aggregation on Huawei Routers

Link Aggregation is one of the important lessons of networking. This is also used too much in network operations. In this lesson, we will talk about Huawei Link Aggregation Configuration. 

NAT Configuration on Huawei Routers

Table of Contents Huawei NAT ConfigurationStatic NATDynamic NAT Huawei NAT Configuration   NAT (Network Address Translation) is a concept used to translate Private block IP addresses to the Public IP 

Basic Terms for Internet

Like millions of people on the world, as a network engineer we are also using Internet. But a little different from other people, we also need to know some common 

RIP Configuration on Juniper

Table of Contents How to Configure RIP on Juniper?Step 1 – IP Address ConfigurationStep 2 – Routing Policy Configuration How to Configure RIP on Juniper? In this lesson, we will 

RIP Configuration on Juniper

Table of Contents How to Configure RIP on Juniper?Step 1 – IP Address ConfigurationStep 2 – Routing Policy Configuration How to Configure RIP on Juniper? In this lesson, we will 

Huawei Static Routing and Load Balancing

Table of Contents Huawei Static RoutingHuawei Static Route Configuration Example Huawei Static Routing   Static Route is a manual simple route configuration. In Huawei Routers, Static Routing is similar to 

Floating Static Route and Default Route Configuration

In this lesson we will focus on Huawei Floating Static Route and Default Route on Huawe Routers. We will give examples for How to configure Huawei Floating Static Route Configuration 

IPv6 NDP (Neighbour Discovery Protocol)

Table of Contents What is IPv6 NDP?Router Discovery What is IPv6 NDP? IPv6 NDP (Neighbor Discovery Protocol) is the Protocol that provide Network Nodes’ Discovery as its name implies. In 

IPv6 NDP (Neighbour Discovery Protocol)

Table of Contents What is IPv6 NDP?Router Discovery What is IPv6 NDP? IPv6 NDP (Neighbor Discovery Protocol) is the Protocol that provide Network Nodes’ Discovery as its name implies. In 

PPPoE

Table of Contents What is PPPoE?PPPoE Session Establishment StagesPPPoE Discovery Stage What is PPPoE? Point-to-Point Protocol over Ethernet (PPPoE) is a network protocol which encapsulates PPP frames inside Ethernet. With 

Frame-Relay Configuration with both Inverse-ARP and Frame-Relay Map

Here, we will talk about two options for configuring Frame-Relay Maps. One is Inverse-ARP and the other is with “frame-relay map” command. To show this in a basic topology, we 

Multipoint Frame Relay Configuration

Here, in multipoint Frame-Relay configuration, we will use the same Cisco 3600 series routers and a frame relay switch. But here, our configuration will not be point-to-point only. Routers will 

Frame Relay Point-to-Point Configuration

AS you know Frame-Relay is a well-known WAN technology that generally used for backbone routers. To understand the basic configuration of Frame-Relay, there is a configuration below with three Cisco 

Metro Ethernet Technology

Table of Contents Metro Ethernet OverviewMetro Ethernet ServicesE-Line (Ethernet Line Service) Metro Ethernet Overview Simply, Metro Ethernet is an enhanced version of Ethernet that is used between long distances with 

Metro Ethernet Overview

Table of Contents Metro Ethernet OverviewMetro Ethernet ServicesE-Line (Ethernet Line Service) Metro Ethernet Overview Simply, Metro Ethernet is an enhanced version of Ethernet that is used between long distances with 

Metro Ethernet

Table of Contents Metro Ethernet OverviewMetro Ethernet ServicesE-Line (Ethernet Line Service) Metro Ethernet Overview Simply, Metro Ethernet is an enhanced version of Ethernet that is used between long distances with 

Metro Ethernet

Table of Contents Metro Ethernet OverviewMetro Ethernet ServicesE-Line (Ethernet Line Service) Metro Ethernet Overview Simply, Metro Ethernet is an enhanced version of Ethernet that is used between long distances with 

What is CIR and PIR?

In Metro Ethernet links, the traffic rates are not stable always. Sometimes the traffic rates increase, sometimes they decrease. To overcome and manage this issue, some key parameters are used. 

CIR and PIR

In Metro Ethernet links, the traffic rates are not stable always. Sometimes the traffic rates increase, sometimes they decrease. To overcome and manage this issue, some key parameters are used. 

VLAN Mapping (VLAN Translation) on Juniper

On Juniper devices, VLAN translation term is used for mentioning the swap of incoming VLAN id to a new VLAN id. In the below configuration examples, we will do this 

VLAN Mapping (VLAN Translation)

In the different locations of the customer, the same VLAN tag means the same. But there is a service provider network between the customer locations. Customers and the service provider 

CGMP (Cisco Group Management Protocol)

What is CGMP? Cisco Group Management Protocol (CGMP) is a Cisco proprietary Layer 2 protocol used for Layer 2 efficiency at layer 2. Basically whenever a host want to join 

OSPFv2 Configuration on Juniper

Table of Contents How to Configure OSPFv2 on Juniper?Step 1 – IP Address ConfigurationStep 4 – OSPF Router ID Configuration How to Configure OSPFv2 on Juniper? In this lesson, we 

OSPFv2 Configuration on Juniper

Table of Contents How to Configure OSPFv2 on Juniper?Step 1 – IP Address ConfigurationStep 4 – OSPF Router ID Configuration How to Configure OSPFv2 on Juniper? In this lesson, we 

ISIS Configuration on Juniper

Table of Contents How to Configure ISIS on Juniper Routers? ISIS Configuration StepsStep 1 – Enabling ISIS on the RouterStep 2 – IP Address ConfigurationStep 3 – Enabling ISIS on 

ISIS Configuration on Juniper

Table of Contents How to Configure ISIS on Juniper Routers? ISIS Configuration StepsStep 1 – Enabling ISIS on the RouterStep 2 – IP Address ConfigurationStep 3 – Enabling ISIS on 

Nokia IP Filter Configuration 1

Here, we will show the IP Filter Configuration on Nokia (Formerly Alcatel-Lucent) Service Routers with an example. To do this, we will create an IP Filter on S1. And then 

Nokia IP Filter Configuration 2

Almost all Network Engineers have realized that, they can access specific subnets and devices but they can not access the others. One of the ways to do this is IP 

IP Filters

IP Filters, are the rules that force the router to permit or to deny mentioned IP addresses, ports, protocols etc. from a source to a destinatio in Nokia (Formerly Alcatel-Lucent) 

MPLS Fast Reroute Protection Types

Both One-to-One and Facility Backup can protect different network elements. And these can be achieved by two ways: – Node Protection : Protect against the failure of the next downstream 

MPLS Label Switching Mechanims

How MPLS LAbel Switching Works? MPLS Technology uses different routers for different roles. There are some common router types that are in these roles. The names of these routers are 

LDP Label Distribution

Table of Contents LDP Label DistributionFIB, LIB, LFIB LDP Label Distribution After LDP session establishment, labels are distributed from the Tail-End router to the Head-End router for each prefix. This 

ISIS for IPv6

Table of Contents Intermediate System to Intermediate System for IPv6IPv6 Address SupportMulti-Topology Extension of ISIS Intermediate System to Intermediate System for IPv6 ISIS is one of the important Link-State protocols. 

IPv6 Static and Default Route Configuration

Table of Contents IPv6 Static Route Configuration on Cisco IOSIPv6 Default Route Configuration on Cisco IOS IPv6 Static Route Configuration on Cisco IOS As you know, static route is the 

Static Route Configuration

Cisco Static Route Configuration To send the traffic to the destination we can use two types of routing. Static and Dynamic routing. Static route tell the network devices about exact 

Dynamic Routing Protocols

Dynamic Routing is the routing process that is done via a Routing Protocol. The Routing Protocols that is used for this aim is also called Dynamic Routing Protocols. Beside discussing 

BFD Operation Facilities

Table of Contents How BFD Works?BFD ApplicationsProtocols Used With BFDDisadvantages of BFD How BFD Works? BFD (Bidirectional Forwarding Detection) mechanism uses packets to inform both ends that the protocol is 

BFD (Bidirectional Forwarding Detection)

Table of Contents What is BFD?BFD Session Establishment What is BFD? BFD (Bidirectional Forwarding Detection) is basically another Hello protocol based on UDP that detects link failures on forwarding plane. 

BFD (Bidirectional Forwarding Detection)

Table of Contents What is BFD?BFD Session Establishment What is BFD? BFD (Bidirectional Forwarding Detection) is basically another Hello protocol based on UDP that detects link failures on forwarding plane. 

BFD Operations

Table of Contents How BFD Works?BFD ApplicationsProtocols Used With BFDDisadvantages of BFD How BFD Works? BFD (Bidirectional Forwarding Detection) mechanism uses packets to inform both ends that the protocol is 

BFD Operation

Table of Contents How BFD Works?BFD ApplicationsProtocols Used With BFDDisadvantages of BFD How BFD Works? BFD (Bidirectional Forwarding Detection) mechanism uses packets to inform both ends that the protocol is 

Bidirectional Forwarding Detection

Table of Contents What is BFD?BFD Session Establishment What is BFD? BFD (Bidirectional Forwarding Detection) is basically another Hello protocol based on UDP that detects link failures on forwarding plane. 

ECMP (Equal Cost Multi Path)

If the total IGP cost to a destination are same for two path, these paths are called Equal Cost Multi Path. Normally if there are two path that have same 

ECMP Configuration on Nokia

In this lesson, we will talk about ECMP (Equal Cost Multipath) Configuration on Nokia Routers. To explaint ECMP better, we will use the below MPLS Topology. As you can see, 

Different Areas of OSPF

Table of Contents What are the OSPF Area Types?Standart AreaStub AreaTotally Stubby Area What are the OSPF Area Types? OSPF uses an hierarchical architecture and build OSPF network with different 

VLAN Routing with Layer 3 Switch on Huawei

In this lesson we will learn Layer 3 VLAN Routing with VLAN Routing Huawei Configuration Example. We do not need any other Layer 3 device for VLAN Routing with Layer 

VLAN Routing with Layer 2 Switch and Router on Huawei

Huawei VLAN Routing with Layer 2 Switch is done with the help of a Layer 3 device, a router. Mainly, in the router, in layer 3, gateways are created for 

IBGP versus EBGP

In the previous post, we have talked about BGP generally. In this post we will handle IBGP and EBGP detailed.   IBGP and EBGP  Table of Contents IBGP (Internal Border 

IBGP versus EBGP

In the previous post, we have talked about BGP generally. In this post we will handle IBGP and EBGP detailed.   IBGP and EBGP  Table of Contents IBGP (Internal Border 

SNMP Configuration On Nokia Service Routers

In the previous articles on SNMP Cofigurations, we have talked about Huawei, Juniper, Cisco SNMP Configurations. In this article, we will handle Nokia SNMP configuration on Nokia Routers. As you 

SNMP Configuration On Juniper

We begin the SNMP configuration with Cisco devices and here, we will continue how to configure a Juniper device for SNMP. In this article we will not mention all the 

TCP/IP Model

Table of Contents TCPIP Model OverviewPhysical LayerData Link LayerInternet LayerTransport LayerApplication LayerTCPIP Model versus OSI ModelTCP IP Model Email Example TCPIP Model Overview TCP IP Model is another important referance 

Portfast, Root Guard, BPDU Filter and BPDU Guard

Table of Contents Portfast, Root Guard, BPDU Filter and BPDU GuardPortFastBPDU Guard Portfast, Root Guard, BPDU Filter and BPDU Guard   The are various mechanims used with STP to provide 

Loop Guard, Uplink Fast, Backbone Fast and UDLD

Table of Contents Loop Guard, Uplink Fast, Backbone Fast and UDLDLoop GuardUplink Fast Loop Guard, Uplink Fast, Backbone Fast and UDLD In this lesson, we will learn other STP Convergence 

QoS Policing and Shaping

In networks, the traffic increses for a variety of reasons. Some Quality of Service Adjustments are done to handle this increases. During these increases, if the capacity of the link 

QoS Classification and Marking

To use Quality of Service for a traffic, firstly traffic need to be identified. With this identification, traffic types are classified and then they are marked with an understandable way 

QoS

Table of Contents What Does QoS Stand For?QoS Service Models What Does QoS Stand For? This is th most ask questions by Network Engineers, especially the Newbies, What Does QoS 

Policing and Shaping in QoS

In networks, the traffic increses for a variety of reasons. Some Quality of Service Adjustments are done to handle this increases. During these increases, if the capacity of the link 

Classification and Marking in QoS

To use Quality of Service for a traffic, firstly traffic need to be identified. With this identification, traffic types are classified and then they are marked with an understandable way 

Quality of Service Overview

Table of Contents What Does QoS Stand For?QoS Service Models What Does QoS Stand For? This is th most ask questions by Network Engineers, especially the Newbies, What Does QoS 

IPv4 Subnetting

Table of Contents IP SubnettingCIDR versus VLSMSpecial SubnetsSubnetting ExamplesIP Subnetting Examples: Example 1IP Subnetting Examples: Example 2Subnetting Example 3Subnetting Examples, Example 4 IP Subnetting   As we talked about before, 

IPv4 Addressing

Table of Contents IPv4 AddressingHow Does IP Addresses are Controlled?IPv4 AddressesIP Address Classes IPv4 Addressing IP Addressing is one of the key point that a network engineer need to learn 

IPv6 Addressing

Table of Contents What is an IPv6 Address?IPv6 Address ExampleIPv6 and CIDR What is an IPv6 Address?   IPv6 Address is the new generation IP address that is mainly deveoped 

IPv6 Address Types

Table of Contents What Are The Types of IPv6 Addresses?IPv6 Reserved AddressesIPv6 Unicast AddressesGlobal Unicast IPv6 AddressIPv6 Link-Local AddressUnique Local IPv6 AddressAnycast AddressesIPv6 Multicast Addresses What Are The Types of 

Link Aggregation with LACP

Link Aggregation Control Protocol (LACP)   Link Aggregation is bundling two or more links as one logical link for increasing bandwidth and availability. This can be done by one of 

SNMP

Simple Network Management Protocol (SNMP) is the main protocol of Network Management. With SNMP, network devices are easily managed and conttolled by a central mechanism. It is an application protocol 

VRRP

VRRP Overview VRRP (Virtual Router Redundancy Protocol) is a standard based First Hop Redundancy Protocol. It eliminates the single point of failure by using multiple optional devices. Traffic prefers going 

ARP

ARP (Address Resolution Protocol) is a Layer 2 Protocol. Layer 2 uses Physical addresses (MAC addresses) for the communication. Here, ARP Protocol is used to convert a given IP address 

Proxy ARP

Basically Proxy ARP is the ARP that is used between one more networks. In other words, we can say that Proxy ARP provides data link dicovery between different networks. Here, 

Gratuitous ARP

Gratuitous ARP, is the ARP that is used to inform the network about IP to MAC Mappings after a change. It is sent as Broadcast message to all the nodes 

ICMP

Internet Control Message Protocol is a Layer 3 Protocol. In IP networks, devices send ICMP encapsulated in IP packet. The general role of ICMP Protocol is generate error packets about 

NAT

The increase of the Internet users has consumed IPv4 addresses rapidly. And to continue with these addresses various techniques have used by organizations. One of teh techniques that is used 

DNS

Table of Contents DNS OverviewDNS Messaging DNS Overview DNS (Domain Name System) is a common protocol that is used to translate hostnames to the IP addresses. Normally, we use website 

DHCP IP Allocation Operation

Table of Contents How Does DHCP Achieve IP Allocation Operation?DHCP Discover MessageDHCP Offer MessageDHCP Request MessageDHCP Ack Message How Does DHCP Achieve IP Allocation Operation? DHCP does its job with 

DHCP

Table of Contents What is DHCP?DHCP IP Allocation MechanismsDHCP Devices and RolesDHCP MessagesAre There Any Other IP Allocation Protocol? What is DHCP? In a network all the Layer 3 devices 

IPv6 Configuration Example on Juniper

IPv6 Configuration on Juniper In this configuration example, we will configure IPv6 on Juniper Routers. For our Juniper IPv6 Configuration Example, we will use the below IPv6 Topology. For our 

IPv6 Address Types

Table of Contents What Are The Types of IPv6 Addresses?IPv6 Reserved AddressesIPv6 Unicast AddressesGlobal Unicast IPv6 AddressIPv6 Link-Local AddressUnique Local IPv6 AddressAnycast AddressesIPv6 Multicast Addresses What Are The Types of 

IPv6 Header versus IPv4 Header

IPv6 Header versus IPv4 Header IPv4 header…Currenly used but not in the future… IPv6 header…Todays and future ip header… Ipv4 Header Note: Some parts are shown irregular to emphasize the 

Dynamic Routing Protocols

Dynamic Routing is the routing process that is done via a Routing Protocol. The Routing Protocols that is used for this aim is also called Dynamic Routing Protocols. Beside discussing 

Routing Tables of Juniper Routers

Table of Contents Juniper Routing TablesJuniper Preference Values Juniper Routing Tables Routing Tables are used for routing decisions on Routers. For example when you configure BGP, these routes are filled 

IPv6 Static Routing Example On Juniper

IPv6 Static Routes (On Juniper Routers) On Juniper routers to create a static route for IPv6 we use “routing-options” hierarchy as IPv4. But this time after this hierarchy, we go 

IPv4 Static Routing Example on Juniper

Static Routing on Juniper Routers Static Routing is the manual route configuration on routers. In JUNOS, static route configuration is done similarly with other Network operating systems. After “static route” 

RADIUS Overview

What is RADIUS? RADIUS (Remote Access Dial-In User Service), RADIUS Protocol is a AAA (Authentication, Authorization, Accounting) protocol that is developed by IETF. RADIUS is a standard base AAA Protocol 

TACACS+ Overview

What is TACACS+? TACACS+ (Terminal Access Controller Access-Control System) is a AAA protocol that is developed by Cisco. After a while TACACS+ has became a standard protocol that is supported 

AAA

Table of Contents What is AAA?Authentication What is AAA? AAA is the abbreviation for Authentication, Authorization and Accounting terms. This mechanims provide security and some user specific steps for a 

AAA Protocols

Table of Contents TACACS versus RADIUSRADIUS and TACACS Usage TACACS versus RADIUS Networks need to be protected against any unknown access. In other words, network administrators need to control the 

Network Cabling

Table of Contents Network Cable TypesEthernet CablesFiber Optic Cable TypesTwisted Pair Cable CategoriesSerial Cables Network Cable Types Network Cabling is the Layer 1 of OSI Model. One of the most 

Local Area Networks (LAN)

There are three common network types according to their coverage size. These are, LANs, MANs and WANs. LAN is the smallest sized network in these three network type. LAN (Local 

Ethernet

Ethernet is the most used technology in LANs in network world. There are various technologies can be used on LANs like Ethernet, Token Ring, FDDI. But the most popular and 

Switches

Table of Contents SwitchesHow Does Switching Work? Switches Switches are one of the most important network equipments of a computer network. It is the main device of a LAN (Local 

How STP Works?

Spanning Tree Protocol (STP) Operation is done with various sub processes. In this lesson, we will talk about each of these sub processes and explain STP Operation detailly. We will 

Rapid Spanning Tree Protocol

Rapid Spanning Tree Protocol (RSTP) is the second STP type. It is a fast converged version of Spanning Tree Protocol as its name implies. RSTP bypass the Blocking State and 

Spanning Tree Protocol

Table of Contents STP OverviewRedundant Layer 2 ProblemsLayer 2 Loops and Broadcast StormsMAC Address InstabilityMultiple Frame TransmissionHow STP Avoid Layer 2 Loops? STP Overview In Layer 2 domain, redundancy is 

MLD (Multicast Listener Discovery)

Table of Contents What is MLD?MLDv1MLDv2 What is MLD? Multicast Listener Discovery (MLD) is the IPv6 Multicast Group Membership Protocol. It works between the Multicast Routers and the Multicast hosts 

MLD Operations

Table of Contents MLD OperationsMLD Querier SelectionGeneral Query and Report Operation MLD Operations In this lesson, we will talk about the specific operations of MLD. We will see; • MLD 

IGMP

Table of Contents What is IGMP?IGMP VersionsIGMPv1IGMPv2IGMPv3 What is IGMP? IGMP (Internet Group Management Protocol) is a Host-Router Multicast Signalling Protocol that provides dynamically registration of the hosts to the 

IGMP Snooping

Table of Contents What is IGMP Snooping?How it Works? What is IGMP Snooping? IGMP Snooping is a Multicast mechanism that runs on Layer 2 switch. This mechanism checks the IGMP 

Multicast IP Addresses

Multicast Addresing is the addressing that is used for Multicast Groups. We can divide Multicast Addressing into two: IPv4 Multicast Addressing IPv6 Multicast Addresing   These addresses identifies the destination 

Multicast MAC Addresses

What is Multicast MAC Address? Multicast MAC Addresses are the MAC addresses start with 0100:5e . As you know, MAC address has 48 bits and consist of vendor code and 

BGP Next Hop Self on Juniper

Table of Contents BGP Next Hop Self Configuration on Juniper Routers1. Creating the Routing Policy on the Router2. Applying the Routing Policy to BGP BGP Next Hop Self Configuration on 

Path Attributes of BGP

BGP Path Attributes BGP uses BGP Path Attributes to determine the Best Path to a destination. According to BGP Best Path Algorithm, BGP Path Attributes are used to determine the 

BGP Messages, BGP Peers and BGP Sessions

Table of Contents BGP Messages, BGP Peers and BGP SessionsWhat is BGP peer?BGP Session Establishment and Session States BGP Messages, BGP Peers and BGP Sessions What is BGP peer? To 

BGP Path Attributes: MED

BGP MED (Multi Exit Discriminator) Attribute is the BGP Path attribute which provides information to the external neighbours, about how to come their Autonomous System. This is opposite of Local 

BGP Path Attributes: Origin

BGP Path Attributes – Origin The Origin attribute informs the Autonomous Systems (AS) about the originator of that route. It is a Well-Known Mandatory BGP Path attribute. It is supported 

BGP Path Attributes: AS Path

Table of Contents BGP AS Path AttributeWhat is AS Path Prepending? BGP AS Path Attribute AS Path Attribute is another Well-Known and Mandatory BGP Path Attribute. Here, as we have 

BGP Path Attributes : Local Preference

Table of Contents What is BGP Local Preference Attribute?How to Assign BGP Local Preference to a Router? What is BGP Local Preference Attribute? In BGP Path selection algorithm, if your 

BGP Configuration Example on Juniper

Table of Contents How to Configure BGP on JuniperIP ConfigurationsAutonomous System Number ConfigurationeBGP Peer ConfigurationsiBGP Peer ConfigurationsCreating Routing PolicyAssigning Routing Policy How to Configure BGP on Juniper BGP is one 

IS-IS Adjacency

Table of Contents IS-IS Protocol AdjacencyIS-IS Protocol OperationDIS (Designated IS)IS-IS Protocol Network TypesIS-IS CostIS-IS Protocol Administrative DistanceIS-IS Protocol AuthenticationIS-IS Protocol Timers IS-IS Protocol Adjacency There are three types adjacency in 

IS-IS Packet Types

IS-IS Packet Types IS-IS Protocol uses L2 encapsulation Ethernet 802.3/802.2. It do not use Ethernet II. Ethernet II is used for IP traffic. IS-IS Protocol exchanges protocol information by using 

IS-IS Addresses

IS-IS Protocol Addresses IS-IS (Intermediate System to Intermediate System) Protocol was developed as a OSI network protocol, not TCP/IP. So, normally IS-IS Protocol not uses IP address, but it uses 

Intermediate System to Intermediate System Protocol

Table of Contents Routing With IS-IS ProtocolIS-IS Protocol Router Types Routing With IS-IS Protocol IS-IS (Intermediate System to Intermediate System Protocol is a Link-State routing protocol that is developed by 

OSPF (Open Shortest Path First)

Table of Contents OSPF(Open Shortest Path First) OverviewOSPF TablesHierarchical OSPF and Area Types OSPF(Open Shortest Path First) Overview OSPF(Open Shortest Path First) is a Link-State Routing Protocol. It is also 

OSPF Packet Types

OSPF Packet Types OSPF use OSPF Packet sto communicate and establish OSPF Operation. There are different Packet types in OSPF and in this article, we will focus on these OSPF 

OSPF Adjacency

Table of Contents OSPF AdjacencyOSPF Adjacency StatesOSPF DR and BDR Selection OSPF Adjacency OSPF Adjacency States Routers establish OSPF adjacency to use OSPF. From the beginning of the establishment to 

OSPF Area Types

Table of Contents What are the OSPF Area Types?Standart AreaStub AreaTotally Stubby Area What are the OSPF Area Types? OSPF uses an hierarchical architecture and build OSPF network with different 

OSPF LSA Types

OSPF LSA Types In OSPF Link-State information, in other words,Routing information is exchanged between routers. This exchange is done with LSAs (Link State Advertisements). There are eleven different LSA types 

OSPF Network Types

OSPF Network Types are very important in OSPF.OSPF Protocol uses different OSPF Network Types. Some of these Network types are Standard and Some of them is Cisco Proprietary. So, what 

OSPF Other Key Lessons

Other OSPF Key Points In htis article, we will talked about the remainning main lessons of OSPF. These small but important lessons are : • OSPF Router ID • OSPF 

OSPFv3 Overview

OSPFv3 is a new version of OSPFv2 protocol that is developed for IPv6. The previous version, OSPFv4 was only used for IPv4. With the IPv6 revolution, routing protocols have also 

IS-IS versus OSPF

IS-IS versus OSPF IS-IS Protocol and OSPF have some similarities and differences. Lets firstly check the similarities of these two protocol one by one: – IS-IS Protocol and OSPF are 

Layer 2 VPN (VPLS) Overview

What is VPLS? Nokia VPLS is a Multipoint-to-Multipoint Layer 2 VPN Service that connects multiple branches of a Customer, in a single logical switched architecture over Service Provider IP/MPLS network. 

Layer 2 VPN (VPLS) Topologies

Layer 2 VPN (VPLS) Topologies VPLS can be defined on One Service Router or on Multiple Service Routers. Basically we can divide VPLS into two here. The first one is 

Layer 2 VPN (VPLS) MAC Learning

Layer 2 VPN (VPLS) MAC Learning VPLS is a Leyer 2 VPN technology. Becuase of its Layer 2 nature, “MAC Learning” is very important for VPLS. So, how does VPLS 

Layer 3 VPN Overview

Table of Contents Layer 3 VPN OverviewLogical View of L3 VPNWhat is the benefits of L3 VPN?L3 VPN RoutersA Simple L3 VPNExample Layer 3 VPN Overview Layer 3 VPN Service 

Layer 3 VPN Operations

Table of Contents L3 VPN OperationsL3 VPN Control Plane and Data Plane L3 VPN Operations Basically in a L3 VPN Architecture, there is a Service buy phentermine online canadian pharmacy 

Layer 3 VPN Data Plane

L3 VPN Data Plane Operations L3 VPN Data Plane is the place that the traffic is sent and received generally. As we mentioned before, CE devices are the devices that 

MPLS Fundamentals

Table of Contents MPLS FundamentalsMPLS BenefitsMPLS HeaderMPLS Terms MPLS Fundamentals MPLS is a packet-forwarding technology which uses labels for data forwarding decisions.Over time, users in networks have increased and this 

MPLS Label Switching Operation

How MPLS LAbel Switching Works? MPLS Technology uses different routers for different roles. There are some common router types that are in these roles. The names of these routers are 

MPLS VPN Labelling

RSVP-TE

Table of Contents RSVP-TE (Resource Reservation Protocol-Traffic Engineering)RSVP-TE Main Characteristics RSVP-TE (Resource Reservation Protocol-Traffic Engineering) RSVP-TE(Resource Reservation Protocol-Traffic Engineering) is the enhanced RSVP for MPLS. RSVP-TE is not a real 

Label Distribution Protocol, LDP

Table of Contents MPLS Label Distribution Protocol, LDPLink LDP MPLS Label Distribution Protocol, LDP LDP (Label Distribution Protocol) is one of the two label exchange protocols of MPLS. The other 

LDP

Table of Contents MPLS Label Distribution Protocol, LDPLink LDP MPLS Label Distribution Protocol, LDP LDP (Label Distribution Protocol) is one of the two label exchange protocols of MPLS. The other 

RSVP-TE

Table of Contents RSVP-TE (Resource Reservation Protocol-Traffic Engineering)RSVP-TE Main Characteristics RSVP-TE (Resource Reservation Protocol-Traffic Engineering) RSVP-TE(Resource Reservation Protocol-Traffic Engineering) is the enhanced RSVP for MPLS. RSVP-TE is not a real 

MPLS VPN Labelling

MPLS Label Switching Operation

MPLS Label Switching MPLS Technology uses different routers for different roles. There are some common router types that are in these roles. The names of these routers are changing in 

MPLS Basics

Table of Contents MPLS BasicsMPLS BenefitsMPLS HeaderMPLS Terms MPLS Basics MPLS is a packet-forwarding technology which uses labels for data forwarding decisions.Over time, users in networks have increased and this 

Layer 3 VPN Data Plane Activities

L3 VPN Data Plane Activities L3 VPN Data Plane is the place that the traffic is sent and received generally. As we mentioned before, CE devices are the devices that 

L3 VPN Control Plane Activities

L3 VPN Control Plane Activities As a basic definition, Control Plane is the time that routing exchange activities are done in L3 VPN Networks. These are the necesssary routing information 

Layer 3 VPN Mechanims

Table of Contents L3 VPN MechanimsL3 VPN Control Plane and Data Plane L3 VPN Mechanims Basically in a L3 VPN Architecture, there is a Service buy phentermine online canadian pharmacy 

L3 VPN Labels

L3 VPN Labels L3 VPN is an IP/MPLS Layer 3 VPN Service. So, it uses the same Labels used in IP/MPLS. In MPLS and VPLS articles we have talked about 

Layer 3 VPN

Table of Contents Layer 3 VPNVPRN OverviewLogical View of L3 VPNWhat is the benefits of L3 VPN?L3 VPN RoutersA Simple L3 VPNExample Layer 3 VPN VPRN Overview Layer 3 VPN 

Layer 2 VPN (VPLS) MAC Learning

VPLS MAC Learning VPLS is a Leyer 2 VPN technology. Becuase of its Layer 2 nature, “MAC Learning” is very important for VPLS. So, how does VPLS learn MAC Addresses? 

Layer 2 VPN (VPLS) Topologies

VPLS Topologies VPLS can be defined on One Service Router or on Multiple Service Routers. Basically we can divide VPLS into two here. The first one is VPLS, that is 

Layer 2 VPN (VPLS)

What is VPLS? Nokia VPLS is a Multipoint-to-Multipoint Layer 2 VPN Service that connects multiple branches of a Customer, in a single logical switched architecture over Service Provider IP/MPLS network. 

TACACS+ Overview

What is TACACS+? TACACS+ (Terminal Access Controller Access-Control System) is a AAA protocol that is developed by Cisco. After a while TACACS+ has became a standard protocol that is supported 

RADIUS Overview

What is RADIUS? RADIUS (Remote Access Dial-In User Service), RADIUS Protocol is a AAA (Authentication, Authorization, Accounting) protocol that is developed by IETF. RADIUS is a standard base AAA Protocol 

AAA Protocols : RADIUS and TACACS+

Table of Contents TACACS versus RADIUSRADIUS and TACACS Usage TACACS versus RADIUS Networks need to be protected against any unknown access. In other words, network administrators need to control the 

Authentication, Authorization and Accounting

Table of Contents What is AAA?Authentication What is AAA? AAA is the abbreviation for Authentication, Authorization and Accounting terms. This mechanims provide security and some user specific steps for a 

Switching Basics

Switches Switches are one of the most important network equipments of a computer network. It is the main device of a LAN (Local Area Network). Switch is a Layer 2, 

Spanning Tree Protocol (STP)

Table of Contents STP OverviewRedundant Layer 2 ProblemsLayer 2 Loops and Broadcast StormsMAC Address InstabilityMultiple Frame TransmissionHow STP Avoid Layer 2 Loops? STP Overview In Layer 2 domain, redundancy is 

RSTP

Rapid Spanning Tree Protocol (RSTP) is the second STP type. It is a fast converged version of Spanning Tree Protocol as its name implies. RSTP bypass the Blocking State and 

STP Operations

Spanning Tree Protocol (STP) Operation is done with various sub processes. In this lesson, we will talk about each of these sub processes and explain STP Operation detailly. We will 

Ethernet Basics

Ethernet is the most used technology in LANs in network world. There are various technologies can be used on LANs like Ethernet, Token Ring, FDDI. But the most popular and 

Network Cable Technologies

Table of Contents Network Cable TypesEthernet CablesFiber Optic Cable TypesTwisted Pair Cable CategoriesSerial Cables Network Cable Types Network Cabling is the Layer 1 of OSI Model. One of the most 

Local Area Networks

There are three common network types according to their coverage size. These are, LANs, MANs and WANs. LAN is the smallest sized network in these three network type. LAN (Local 

Unicast, Broadcast, Anycast, Multicast

There are different transmission techniques in communication if we divide communication according to the receivers. These communication techniques are: Unicast Multicast Broadcast Anycast Unicast is the communication that there is 

Multicast MAC Addresses

What is Multicast MAC Address? Multicast MAC Addresses are the MAC addresses start with 0100:5e . As you know, MAC address has 48 bits and consist of vendor code and 

Multicast IP Addresses

Multicast Addresing is the addressing that is used for Multicast Groups. We can divide Multicast Addressing into two: IPv4 Multicast Addressing IPv6 Multicast Addresing   These addresses identifies the destination 

IGMP Snooping

Table of Contents What is IGMP Snooping?How it Works? What is IGMP Snooping? IGMP Snooping is a Multicast mechanism that runs on Layer 2 switch. This mechanism checks the IGMP 

IGMP (Internet Group Management Protocol)

Table of Contents What is IGMP?IGMP VersionsIGMPv1IGMPv2IGMPv3 What is IGMP? IGMP (Internet Group Management Protocol) is a Host-Router Multicast Signalling Protocol that provides dynamically registration of the hosts to the 

Basic BGP Configuration Example on Juniper

Table of Contents How to Configure BGP on JuniperIP ConfigurationsAutonomous System Number ConfigurationeBGP Peer ConfigurationsiBGP Peer ConfigurationsCreating Routing PolicyAssigning Routing Policy How to Configure BGP on Juniper BGP is one 

BGP Path Attributes : Local Preference

Table of Contents What is BGP Local Preference Attribute?How to Assign BGP Local Preference to a Router? What is BGP Local Preference Attribute? In BGP Path selection algorithm, if your 

BGP Path Attributes: AS Path

Table of Contents BGP AS Path AttributeWhat is AS Path Prepending? BGP AS Path Attribute AS Path Attribute is another Well-Known and Mandatory BGP Path Attribute. Here, as we have 

BGP Path Attributes: Origin

BGP Path Attributes – Origin The Origin attribute informs the Autonomous Systems (AS) about the originator of that route. It is a Well-Known Mandatory BGP Path attribute. It is supported 

BGP Path Attributes: MED

BGP MED (Multi Exit Discriminator) Attribute is the BGP Path attribute which provides information to the external neighbours, about how to come their Autonomous System. This is opposite of Local 

BGP(Border Gateway Protocol)

Table of Contents BGP (Border Gateway Protocol)What is Autonomous System(AS) and AS Number(ASN)? BGP (Border Gateway Protocol) AS you know there are two types of routing protocols in general. These 

BGP Peers, BGP Sessions and BGP Messages

Table of Contents BGP Peers, BGP Sessions and BGP MessagesWhat is BGP peer?BGP Session Establishment and Session States BGP Peers, BGP Sessions and BGP Messages What is BGP peer? To 

BGP Path Attributes

BGP Path Attributes BGP uses BGP Path Attributes to determine the Best Path to a destination. According to BGP Best Path Algorithm, BGP Path Attributes are used to determine the 

IS-IS Overview

Table of Contents Routing With IS-IS ProtocolIS-IS Protocol Router Types Routing With IS-IS Protocol IS-IS (Intermediate System to Intermediate System Protocol is a Link-State routing protocol that is developed by 

IS-IS Addresses

IS-IS Protocol Addresses IS-IS (Intermediate System to Intermediate System) Protocol was developed as a OSI network protocol, not TCP/IP. So, normally IS-IS Protocol not uses IP address, but it uses 

IS-IS Packet Types

IS-IS Packet Types IS-IS Protocol uses L2 encapsulation Ethernet 802.3/802.2. It do not use Ethernet II. Ethernet II is used for IP traffic. IS-IS Protocol exchanges protocol information by using 

IS-IS Adjacency

Table of Contents IS-IS Protocol AdjacencyIS-IS Protocol OperationDIS (Designated IS)IS-IS Protocol Network TypesIS-IS CostIS-IS Protocol Administrative DistanceIS-IS Protocol AuthenticationIS-IS Protocol Timers IS-IS Protocol Adjacency There are three types adjacency in 

ISIS for IPv6

Table of Contents Intermediate System to Intermediate System for IPv6IPv6 Address SupportMulti-Topology Extension of ISIS Intermediate System to Intermediate System for IPv6 ISIS is one of the important Link-State protocols. 

IS-IS versus OSPF

IS-IS versus OSPF IS-IS Protocol and OSPF have some similarities and differences. Lets firstly check the similarities of these two protocol one by one: – IS-IS Protocol and OSPF are 

OSPFv3 Overview

OSPFv3 is a new version of OSPFv2 protocol that is developed for IPv6. The previous version, OSPFv4 was only used for IPv4. With the IPv6 revolution, routing protocols have also 

OSPF Other Key Properties

Other OSPF Key Points In htis article, we will talked about the remainning main lessons of OSPF. These small but important lessons are : • OSPF Router ID • OSPF 

OSPF Network Types

OSPF Network Types are very important in OSPF.OSPF Protocol uses different OSPF Network Types. Some of these Network types are Standard and Some of them is Cisco Proprietary. So, what 

OSPF LSA Types

OSPF LSA Types In OSPF Link-State information, in other words,Routing information is exchanged between routers. This exchange is done with LSAs (Link State Advertisements). There are eleven different LSA types 

OSPF Area Types

Table of Contents What are the OSPF Area Types?Standart AreaStub AreaTotally Stubby Area What are the OSPF Area Types? OSPF uses an hierarchical architecture and build OSPF network with different 

OSPF Adjacency

Table of Contents OSPF AdjacencyOSPF Adjacency StatesOSPF DR and BDR Selection OSPF Adjacency OSPF Adjacency States Routers establish OSPF adjacency to use OSPF. From the beginning of the establishment to 

OSPF Packets

OSPF Packet Types OSPF use OSPF Packet sto communicate and establish OSPF Operation. There are different Packet types in OSPF and in this article, we will focus on these OSPF 

OSPF Overview

Table of Contents OSPF(Open Shortest Path First) OverviewOSPF TablesHierarchical OSPF and Area Types OSPF(Open Shortest Path First) Overview OSPF(Open Shortest Path First) is a Link-State Routing Protocol. It is also 

Juniper Routing Tables

Table of Contents Juniper Routing TablesJuniper Preference Values Juniper Routing Tables Routing Tables are used for routing decisions on Routers. For example when you configure BGP, these routes are filled 

IPv6 Static Routing Example

IPv6 Static Routes (On Juniper Routers) On Juniper routers to create a static route for IPv6 we use “routing-options” hierarchy as IPv4. But this time after this hierarchy, we go 

IPv4 Static Routing Example

Static Routing on Juniper Routers Static Routing is the manual route configuration on routers. In JUNOS, static route configuration is done similarly with other Network operating systems. After “static route” 

Routing Protocols Overview

Dynamic Routing is the routing process that is done via a Routing Protocol. The Routing Protocols that is used for this aim is also called Dynamic Routing Protocols. Beside discussing 

Network Cabling Technologies

Table of Contents Network Cable TypesEthernet CablesFiber Optic Cable TypesTwisted Pair Cable CategoriesSerial Cables Network Cable Types Network Cabling is the Layer 1 of OSI Model. One of the most 

LAN Overview

Table of Contents Local Area Networks (LANs)What Do we Need for a LAN?Why Are LANs Used ? Local Area Networks (LANs) There are three coomon network types according to their 

Ethernet Basics

Ethernet is the most used technology in LANs in network world. There are various technologies can be used on LANs like Ethernet, Token Ring, FDDI. But the most popular and 

MVRP Configuration on Juniper

Table of Contents MVRP Configuration on JuniperSwitch 1 Configuration MVRP Configuration on Juniper MVRP is the protocol that provides dynamic VLAN registration and creation. The counterparts of MVRP are Cisco 

MVRP (Multiple VLAN Registration Protocol)

Table of Contents MVRP (Multiple VLAN Registration Protocol)MVRP Overview MVRP (Multiple VLAN Registration Protocol) MVRP Overview MVRP (Multiple VLAN Registration Protocol) is the counterpart protocol of Cisco VTP and GVRP 

VLANs Overview

Table of Contents What is a VLAN?VLAN DefinitionCollision and Broadcast DomainsVLANs What is it?What is Native VLAN? What is a VLAN? In this lesson, we will talk about one of 

Switches Basics

Table of Contents SwitchesHow Does Switching Work? Switches Switches are one of the most important network equipments of a computer network. It is the main device of a LAN (Local 

VLAN Port Types and Port Assignment

In this lesson, we will focus on some of the key lessons of VLANs. We will learn how to assign ports to VLAN, VLAN Port types and VLAn Tagging. Table 

VLAN Tagging

VLAN Frame Tagging Protocols (ISL and dot1.q) In this lesson, we will learn VLAN Frame Tagging Protocols detailly. In the next lessons, you can also check Cisco VLAN Configuration Examples. 

Spanning Tree Protocol Operation

Spanning Tree Protocol (STP) Operation is done with various sub processes. In this lesson, we will talk about each of these sub processes and explain STP Operation detailly. We will 

Rapid Spanning Tree Protocol (RSTP)

Rapid Spanning Tree Protocol (RSTP) is the second STP type. It is a fast converged version of Spanning Tree Protocol as its name implies. RSTP bypass the Blocking State and 

Spanning Tree Protocol (STP)

Table of Contents STP OverviewRedundant Layer 2 ProblemsLayer 2 Loops and Broadcast StormsMAC Address InstabilityMultiple Frame TransmissionHow STP Avoid Layer 2 Loops? STP Overview In Layer 2 domain, redundancy is 

SNMP Overview

Simple Network Management Protocol (SNMP) is the main protocol of Network Management. With SNMP, network devices are easily managed and conttolled by a central mechanism. It is an application protocol 

LDP Overview

Table of Contents MPLS Label Distribution Protocol, LDPLink LDP MPLS Label Distribution Protocol, LDP LDP (Label Distribution Protocol) is one of the two label exchange protocols of MPLS. The other 

RSVP-TE Overview

Table of Contents RSVP-TE (Resource Reservation Protocol-Traffic Engineering)RSVP-TE Main Characteristics RSVP-TE (Resource Reservation Protocol-Traffic Engineering) RSVP-TE(Resource Reservation Protocol-Traffic Engineering) is the enhanced RSVP for MPLS. RSVP-TE is not a real 

MPLS VPN Labelling

MPLS VPN Basics MPLS mechanims uses two types MPLS Label to accomplish MPLS VPN Services. These are the two tunnel mechanims in MPLS mechnism. A Tunnel and many sub service 

MPLS Label Switching

How MPLS LAbel Switching Works? MPLS Technology uses different routers for different roles. There are some common router types that are in these roles. The names of these routers are 

MPLS Fundamentals

Table of Contents What is MPLS?MPLS BenefitsMPLS HeaderMPLS Terms What is MPLS? MPLS is a packet-forwarding technology which uses labels for data forwarding decisions.Over time, users in networks have increased 

LACP Overview

Link Aggregation Control Protocol (LACP)   Link Aggregation is bundling two or more links as one logical link for increasing bandwidth and availability. This can be done by one of 

VRRP Overview

VRRP Overview VRRP (Virtual Router Redundancy Protocol) is a standard based First Hop Redundancy Protocol. It eliminates the single point of failure by using multiple optional devices. Traffic prefers going 

Generic Routing Encapsulation Oveview

GRE (Generic Routing Encapsulation) GRE Overview GRE (Generic Routing Encapsulation) is the mechanism that encapsulate one protocol in another protocol and provides connection between the nodes. This is done basically 

Next Hop Self Command on Juniper Routers

Table of Contents BGP Next Hop Self Configuration on Juniper Routers1. Creating the Routing Policy on the Router2. Applying the Routing Policy to BGP BGP Next Hop Self Configuration on 

Basic BGP Configuration on Juniper

Table of Contents How to Configure BGP on JuniperIP ConfigurationsAutonomous System Number ConfigurationeBGP Peer ConfigurationsiBGP Peer ConfigurationsCreating Routing PolicyAssigning Routing Policy How to Configure BGP on Juniper BGP is one 

Border Gateway Protocol Overview

Table of Contents BGP (Border Gateway Protocol)What is Autonomous System(AS) and AS Number(ASN)? BGP (Border Gateway Protocol) AS you know there are two types of routing protocols in general. These 

BGP Peers, Sessions and Messages

Table of Contents BGP Peers, BGP Sessions and BGP MessagesWhat is BGP peer?BGP Session Establishment and Session States BGP Peers, BGP Sessions and BGP Messages What is BGP peer? To 

IBGP and EBGP

In the previous post, we have talked about BGP generally. In this post we will handle IBGP and EBGP detailed.   IBGP and EBGP  Table of Contents IBGP (Internal Border 

BGP Path Attributes

BGP Path Attributes BGP uses BGP Path Attributes to determine the Best Path to a destination. According to BGP Best Path Algorithm, BGP Path Attributes are used to determine the 

IS-IS versus OSPF

IS-IS versus OSPF IS-IS Protocol and OSPF have some similarities and differences. Lets firstly check the similarities of these two protocol one by one: – IS-IS Protocol and OSPF are 

IS-IS Overview

Table of Contents Routing With IS-IS ProtocolIS-IS Protocol Router Types Routing With IS-IS Protocol IS-IS (Intermediate System to Intermediate System Protocol is a Link-State routing protocol that is developed by 

IS-IS Addressing

IS-IS Protocol Addresses IS-IS (Intermediate System to Intermediate System) Protocol was developed as a OSI network protocol, not TCP/IP. So, normally IS-IS Protocol not uses IP address, but it uses 

Packet Types of IS-IS

IS-IS Packet Types IS-IS Protocol uses L2 encapsulation Ethernet 802.3/802.2. It do not use Ethernet II. Ethernet II is used for IP traffic. IS-IS Protocol exchanges protocol information by using