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hacker-types-ipcisco.com
Types of Hackers

A Hacker is a highly skilled person on Cyber Security, Computer Systems and Networks. In other words, they are the Master of Computer World. With such an expertise, a Hacker…


site-to-site-vpn-ipcisco
VPN Types and Protocols of VPN

VPN Types   VPN (Virtual Private Network) is a technology that provides a secure connection to a private network  over Internet for users. By encrypting the connections, VPN provides security…


cisco-devnet-certification-steps
Cisco DevNet Certifications

Cisco’s New Software Development Certifications : DevNet Cisco has announced its new certification program as “Next Level Certifications”. One of the most important changes in Cisco Certifications with this new…


cisco-next-level-certification
Cisco Next Level Certifications

15 Major Changes with New Cisco Certification Suite What is new With Cisco Next Level Certifications?   Cisco has changed Cisco Certification Suite with a new focus on latest technologies…


BGP-Confederation
BGP Confederation

What is a BGP Confederation?   BGP Confederations is an another mechanism to avoid iBGP Full Mesh topology like Route Reflectors. As a basic definion, BGP Confederaition mechanims is Autonomous…


BGP-RR-update-from-RR-client
BGP Route Reflector

Why We Use BGP Route Reflectors?   By default iBGP Peers need to be Full mesh together. BGP Route Reflector (RR) is a BGP Mechanism used to bypass this iBGP…


bgp-community-local-as
BGP Community

BGP Community Attribute BGP Community Attribute is an Optional Transitive BGP Path Attribute. With BGP Community Attribute, destinations are grouped and BGP route policy decisions are done special to each…


ccna-salary-london
CCNA Salary

What Does a CCNA Earn in a Month? Network Engineering and Network Technician Jobs are one of the popular Jobs in Information Technology. With the development of Computer Networks this…


linux-ping-commands-ipcisco.com
Ping Command in Linux

Ping Command in Linux Ping Command is the most used command in networking world. Maybe it is the first command that every network engineer has used firstly. During  network integration,…


ipv6-eui-64-format-ipcisco.com
IPv6 Link Local Address

What is IPv6 Link Local Address?   IPv6 has different address types. One of the important and widely used IPv6 Address type is IPv6 Link Local Address. Every IPv6 enable…


show-control-valid-vedges-cisco-sd-wan
Cisco SD-WAN Verification

Cisco SD-WAN Verification Commands   In this lesson we will focus on How to Verify Cisco SD-WAN Configuration. Here, we will see Cisco SD-WAN Architecture vBond Orchestrator, vSmart Controllers, vManage…


Cisco-Viptela-vSmart-Controller-Config
Cisco vSmart Controller Configuration

How to Configure vSmart Controller? The Virtual Machines that we will use as Cisco (Viptela) vSmart Controller device come with a factory default configuration. We should do the initial configuration…


cisco-viptela-vbond-config
Cisco vBond Initial Configuration

How to Configure vBond Orchestrator?   vBond Orchestrator comes with a factory default configuration at the beginning. So, to enroll to the Cisco SD-WAN, it needs to be configured a…


cisco-viptela-sd-wan.ipcisco.com
Cisco SD-WAN Components

Cisco SD-WAN Components   In Cisco SD-WAN Architecture, there are main components work on different SD-WAN Architecture Planes. These SD WAN Components and their location in the SD-WAN Architecture ig…


sd-wan-architecture-ipcisco.com
SD-WAN Architecture

Cisco SD-WAN (Viptela SD-WAN) Architecture   In SD-WAN Cisco (formerly SD-WAN Viptela), Cisco SD-WAN Architecture consist of four main SD-WAN Planes. Each of this SD-WAN Planes has specific duty in…


cisco-mst-configuration
MST Configuration on Cisco

In this configuration example,, we will learn How to Configure Spanning-Tree MST Mode on Cisco switches. To configure MST (Multiple Spanning Tree), we will use the below topology. Now, let’s…


huawei-ftp-server-config
Huawei FTP Configuration

Huawei FTP Configuration In this Huawei FTP Configuration example, we will configure a router as FTP Server and then we will try to connect this FTP Server router from another…


radius-versus-diameter
Diameter Protocol Overview

Diameter Protocol Overview   With the development of network world, new requirements has appeared in AAA. For this requirements a new protocol was developed as an enhanced version of RADIUS.…


cisco-span
Cisco SPAN Overview

Cisco SPAN Overview SPAN  (Local Switched Port Analyzer) is used to monitor specific souce ports’ or specific VLANs traffic, mirror this traffic and then sends the traffic to a destination…


wan-topology-types
WAN Topology Types

WAN Topology Types   WANs interconnect different networks over long distances. Various network topologies used to build a WAN network. The main topologies used on WANs are given below: Point-to-Point…


huawei-mst-configuration-hcia
MSTP Configuration on Huawei eNSP

MSTP Configuration on Huawei eNSP MSTP is an enchanced STP version. With MSTP, both multiple STP instances can be used and one more VLANs can be added to these instances.…


huawei-router-interface-configuration
Huawei Router Interface Configuration with eNSP

Huawei Router Interface Configuration Huawei Router Interface Configuration is one of the first configuration that Junior Network Engineers learn on Huawei Routers. Here, we will show how to configure Huawei…


PVST-configuration-with-packet-tracer
PVST+ and Rapid PVST+Configuration on Packet Tracer

PVST+ and Rapid PVST+Configuration on Packet Tracer PVST+ Configuration on Packet Tracer In this Spanning Tree Configuration Example, we will configure STP with STP Mode PVST+. As you know, PVST+…


nokia-service-router-event-logs
Logs in Nokia Service Routers

Logs in Nokia Service Routers Logs are very important for a Network Engineer during troubleshooting. A good  Network Engineer, check the right logs and determine the required actions according to…


OSPFv2-on-eNSP
OSPv2 Configuration on Huawei eNSP

OSPv2 Configuration on Huawei eNSP   In this OSPF Configuration Example, we will configure OSPFv2 on Huawei Routers. We will use eNSP for our Huawei OSPFv2 Configuration Example and our…


ripv2-configuration-on-huawei-ensp
RIPv2 Configuration on Huawei eNSP

RIPv2 Configuration on Huawei eNSP RIPv2 is an old Routing Protocol but it is the first Routing Protocol that all Network Engineers meet first. In this lesson, we will configure…


packet-tracer-radius-conf -
RADIUS Configuration on Packet Tracer

RADIUS Configuration on Packet Tracer   In this RADIUS Configuration Example, we will configure RADIUS Server and a Cisco Router for RADIUS Authentication, for the users connected to the router…


mst-802.1s
MST (Multiple Spanning Tree)

MST (Multiple Spanning Tree) MST Overview MST (Multiple Spanning Tree) is the version of STP thatg allows multiple VLANs to a single instance. It is the standard based protocol defined with…


pvst-802.1d
PVST+ and Rapid PVST+

PVST+ and Rapid PVST+ PVST+ (Per VLAN Spanning Tree Plus)   PVST+ (Per VLAN Spanning Tree Plus) is a Cisco proprietary STP version. It is also the default STP version for…


mlppp-example
MLPPP Configuration on Cisco Packet Tracer

MLPPP Configuration on Cisco   In this MLPPP Configuration example, we will use the below simple topology. We will configure MLPPP on both of the routers step by step.  …


MLPPP-bundle
What is MLPPP?

MLPPP (Multilink Point-to-Point Protocol)   What is MLPPP? MLPPP (Multilink Point-to-Point Protocol) is the protocol that bundles multiple serial wan links into a one Logical Bundle. As a name, PPP…


802.1x-Components
EAPoL (Extensible Authentication Protocol over LAN)

EAPoL (Extensible Authentication Protocol over LAN) EAPoL is the abbreviation of Extensible Authentication Protocol over LAN. EAPoL is a network authentication protocol used in 802.1x (Port Based Natwork Access Control).…


802.1x-EAP-RADIUS-Messaging
802.1x (Port Based Network Access Control)

802.1x (Port Based Network Access Control) 802.1x is a LAN Security Mechanism that provides port based access control in the network devices. In 802.1x mechanism, devices needs to be authenticated…


huawei-ensp-port-security-topology
Huawei Port Security Configuration on Huawei eNSP

Huawei Port Security Configuration on Huawei eNSP In this configuration example, we will configure Port Security on a Huawei switch. For our configuration, we will use the below topology consist…


SLAAC-with-DHCP-IPv6-Stateless-Auto-Configuration
Stateless Address Auto Configuration (SLAAC)

Stateless Address Auto Configuration (SLAAC) Stateless Address Auto Configuration (SLAAC) is the IPv6 Auto Configuration technique that is done automatically on the hosts with the help of IP Prefixes coming…


ipv6-address-allocation-mechanisms
DHCPv6 Overview

Dynamic Host Configuration Protocol version 6 IP Allocation can be done with different mechanims in IPv6. Mainly, we can devide IPv6 Allocation mechanims into two. These are: • Manual •…


work time protocol
Cisco NTP Configuration

Cisco NTP Configuration In Cisco devices, NTP Configuration is done with a little various NTP commands. In this example, we will see how to configure NTP on Cisco devices. Here,…


ntp-stratum
NTP (Network Time Protocol)

NTP (Network Time Protocol) NTP Overview The time on the network devices are very important. In a network all the devices’ times need to be synronized. Using the same time…


NETCONF-messaging
NETCONF Operation Steps

NETCONF Operations NETCONF Operation has three common steps. These steps are: • Session Establishment • Operation Request and Reply • Session Close Firstly, the Session is Established with the messages.…


netconf-layers
NETCONF Protocol Stack

NETCONF Protocol Stack NETCONF Protocol Stack consist of four main layers. These NETCONF Protocol Stack are: • Content • Operations • Messages • Transport At the Content Layer, YANG Modeling…


NETCONF-in-SDN
NETCONF Overview

Network Configuration Protocol (NETCONF) is a standard based IETF Network Configuration Management Protocol. With this Network Configuration Management Protocol, we can install, modify and remove the configuration of the network…


huawei-mld-configuration
MLD Configuration on Huawei Routers

MLD Configuration on Huawei Routers In this lesson we will give an example topology consist of Huawei switches and multicast hosts and then we will configure MLD on these devices.…


Dynamic Routing Protocol Types

Dynamic Routing is the routing process that is done via a Routing Protocol. The Routing Protocols that is used for this aim is also called Dynamic Routing Protocols. Beside discussing…


uplink-fast-example
STP Convergence Mechanisms - Part 2

STP Convergence Mechanisms - Part 2 Now, let's continue with other STP COnvergence Mechanisms. Loop Guard Loop Guard is the STP mechanims that is used to protect the network against…


bpdu-guard-example
STP Convergence Mechanisms - Part 1

STP Convergence Mechanisms - Part 1 The are various mechanims used with STP to provide stable STP topology. In this lesson, we will focus on what are these STP Mechanims…


cisco-dns-server-example
DNS Configuration on Cisco Routers

How to Configure DNS on Cisco Routers? To use DNS, firstly, we must configure a DNS Server. In a network, we can confgiure a router as a Domain Name System…


dns-operation
Domain Name System Overview

DNS Overview DNS (Domain Name System) is a common protocol that is used to translate hostnames to the IP addresses. Normally, we use website addresses on our browsers. These website…


traffic-policing
Policing and Shaping in QoS

Policing and Shaping in QoS In networks, the traffic increses for a variety of reasons. During these increases, if the capacity of the link is exceeded, then the traffic on…


Classification and Marking in QoS

Classification and Marking in QoS To use QoS for a traffic, firstly traffic need to be identified. With this identification, traffic types are classified and then they are marked with…


traffic-types
Quality of Service Overview

QoS (Quality of Service) Overview QoS (Quality of Service) is the general name of a concept , which is used to optimize networks with different priority levels to different applications…


tacacs-messaging
TACACS+ Overview

TACACS+ Overview TACACS+ (Terminal Access Controller Access-Control System) is a AAA protocol that is developed by Cisco. After a while TACACS+ has became a standard protocol that is supported by…


radius-messaging
RADIUS Overview

RADIUS Overview RADIUS (Remote Access Dial-In User Service) is a AAA (Authentication, Authorization, Accounting) protocol that is developed by IETF. RADIUS is a standard base AAA Protocol supported by all…


radius-versus-tacacs
AAA Protocols : RADIUS and TACACS+

AAA Protocols : RADIUS and TACACS+ Networks need to be protected against any unknown access. In other words, network administrators need to control the users that can access to the…


cir-pir-eir
What is CIR and PIR?

In Metro Ethernet links, the traffic rates are not stable always. Sometimes the traffic rates increase, sometimes they decrease. To overcome and manage this issue, some key parameters are used.…


metro-ethernet-services
Metro Ethernet

Metro Ethernet Metro Ethernet Overview Simply, Metro Ethernet is an enhanced version of Ethernet that is used between long distances with higher bandwidths. Metro Ethernet can be used both by…


PPPoE-session-establishment
Point-to-Point Protocol over Ethernet (PPPoE)

Point-to-Point Protocol over Ethernet (PPPoE) Point-to-Point Protocol over Ethernet (PPPoE) is a network protocol which encapsulates PPP frames inside Ethernet. With PPPoE, multiple hosts in an Ethernet LAN are connected…


sdn-versus-nfv
NFV and SDN

NFV and SDN NFV and SDN are two important concepts for today’s and future network. So, why are they used together? To understand this, let’s firtly look at their main…


NFV-Architecture
NFV Infrastructure

NFV Infrastructure Network Functions Virtualization (NFV) system consists of three key Infrastructure elements. These elements are: • NFVI (Network Functions Virtualization Infrastructure) • VNFs (Virtual Network Functions) • MANO (Management…


without-nfv-with-nfv
NFV Overview

NFV Overview Basically, Network Function Virtualization (NFV) is a network concept that replaces specialized hardwares (routers, firewalls, load balancers etc) used in classical network architecture with softwares running on servers…


ipv6-redirection
IPv6 NDP (Neighbour Discovery Protocol)

What is IPv6 NDP? IPv6 NDP (Neighbor Discovery Protocol) is the Protocol that provide Network Nodes’ Discovery as its name implies. In the IPv4 World, we were using ARP, but…


Open-Flow-Connection-Establishment
Open Flow Messages

Open Flow Messages Open Flow Control Messages are based on TCP. To set up Open Flow communication, Open Flow Controller listens TCP ports 6633/6653. There are five main parts in…


Open-Flow-Switch
Open Flow Components

Open Flow Components There are two main components used with Open Flow. These are: • Open Flow Switches • Open Flow Controllers Open Flow Switches Open Flow provide the seperation…


Open-Flow
Open Flow Overview

Open Flow Overview Open Flow is a Standard based Layer 2 Communication protocol used between Controller and Switch in SDN. It allows to access to the Forwarding Plane of the…


huawei-floating-static-routing
Floating Static Route and Default Route Configuration

Floating Static Route and Default Route Configuration In this lesson we sill focus on How to Configure Floating Static Route and Default Route on Huawe Routers. We will give examples…


huawei-static-routing
Huawei Static Routing and Load Balancing

Huawei Static Routing Static Route is a manual simple route configuration. In Huawei Routers, Static Routing is similar to the other platforms. The concept is simple: • Write “ip static…


with-ecmp
ECMP Configuration on Nokia Routers

ECMP Configuration on Nokia Routers In this lesson, we will talk about ECMP (Equal Cost Multipath) Configuration on Nokia Routers. To explaint ECMP better, we will use the below MPLS…


huawei-vrp
Huawei VRP (Versatile Routing Platform)

What is Huawei VRP (Versatile Routing Platform) Huawei VRP Overview VRP (Versatile Routing Platform) is the Operating System that many Huawei devices operate. This is like Cisco’s IOS, Nokia's (Alcatel-Lucent’s)…


huawei-file-system
Huawei Router File System

Huawei Router File System In all network device, there is a File System. In Huawei routers and switches there is also a File System. File System stores many important files…


tranport-and-service-labels
MPLS VPN Labelling

MPLS VPN Basics MPLS mechanims uses two types MPLS Label to accomplish MPLS VPN Services. These are the two tunnel mechanims in MPLS mechnism. A Tunnel and many sub service…


push-swap-pop
MPLS Label Switching

MPLS Label Switching MPLS Technology uses different routers for different roles. There are some common router types that are in these roles. The names of these routers are changing in…


ipv6-configuration-on-nokia
IPv6 Configuration on Nokia Routers

IPv6 Configuration on Nokia Routers In this configuration example, we will configure IPv6 on Nokia Service Routers (Formerly Alcatel-Lcuent Routers. For this simple IPv6 Address configuration example, we will use…


juniper-ipv6-example
IPv6 Configuration on Juniper

IPv6 Configuration on Juniper In this configuration example, we will configure IPv6 on Juniper Routers. For our Juniper IPv6 Configuration Example, we will use the below IPv6 Topology. For our…


distributed-service-mirroring-example
Remote Service Mirroring Configuration

Remote Service Mirroring Configuration Remote Service Mirroting is the other Service Mirroring type. As we have talked about before, Remote Service Mirroring is the service mirroring that is done between…


service-mirroring-example
Local Service Mirroring Configuration

Local Service Mirroring Configuration In this article, we will focus on Nokia (Alcatel-Lucent) Service Mirroring Configuration. As we have talked about before, there are two Service Mirroring Type. Local Service…


service-mirroring
Nokia Service Mirroring

Service Mirroring During troubleshooting activities, different tools are used to determine the cause of a problem. Mirroring is also a troubleshooting tool for these activities. In Nokia (Alcatel-Lucent) world, mirroring…


sdn-terminology
SDN Terminology

SDN Terminology In this SDN Terminology lesson, we will define the main terms used in SDN (Software-Defined Networking). SDN : Software-Defined Networking. It is a new network architecture that comprised…


what-sdn-brings
What Will SDN Bring?

New Features Coming With SDN Software-Defined Networking (SDN) brings many innovation to the Traditional Networs. It provides this with newly defined architecture. What are these features? These are: • New…


SDN-planes
SDN Architecture Components

SDN Architecture Components SDN Architecture consist of different components. Here, we will see all these SDN Architecture Components and their duty one by one. What are these SDN Components? The…


traditional-versus-sdn
Traditional Network Drawbacks Versus SDN

In this lessons, we will talk about SDN versus Traditional Networks. We will give the drawbacks of traditional networks and give the benefits coming with SDN. Till recent years many…


sdn-controlling-the-data-plane
What is SDN ?

SDN Overview SDN (Software-Defined Networking) is a new network architecture that comprised different network technologies to build a flexible, scalable, agile and easy manageble networks. With its new view, SDN…


Ethernet-Frame-Header-Types
Ethernet Basics

Ethernet Basics Ethernet is the most used technology in LANs in network world. Tehre are various technologies can be used on LANs like Ethernet, Token Ring, FDDI. But the most…


basic-home-lan
Local Area Networks

Local Area Networks (LANs) There are three coomon network types according to their coverage size. These are, LANs, MANs and WANs. LAN is the smallest sized network in these three…


switches
Switches

Switches Switches are one of the most important network equipments of a computer network. It is the main device of a LAN (Local Area Network). Switch is a Layer 2,…


how-gratuitous-arp-works-4
Gratuitous ARP

Gratuitous ARP Gratuitous ARP, is the ARP that is used to inform the network about IP to MAC Mappings after a change. It is sent as Broadcast message to all…


how-proxy-arp-works-3
Proxy ARP

Proxy ARP Basically Proxy ARP is the ARP that is used between one more networks. On other words, we can say that Proxy ARP provides data link dicovery between different…


how-arp-works-2
Address Resolution Protocol (ARP)

Address Resolution Protocol (ARP) ARP (Address Resolution Protocol) is a Layer 2 Protocol. Layer 2 uses Physicall addresses (MAC addresses) for the communication. Here, ARP is used to convert a…


huawei-aaa-configuration
Huawei AAA Configuration

Huawei AAA Configuration AAA Configuration is done basically in similar ways in different vendor equipments. But for specific vendors, the configuration commands are a little different than the other. Here,…


lag-saturation
Ethernet Redundancy with LAG

Ethernet Redundancy Redundacy is very important for a network. In many networks, redundacy is provided in different type of topologies or protocols. Here, we will talk about redundancy on Ethernet.…


GLBP-example
GLBP Configuration on Cisco

GLBP Configuration on Cisco GLBP is a Cisco Proprietary Firsth Hop Redundancy Protocol. In this lesson, we will configure GLBP on Cisco devices with a GLBP Example Topology. For our…


GLBP
GLBP (Gateway Load Balancing Protocol)

GLBP (Gateway Load Balancing Protocol) GLBP Overview GLBP (Gateway Load Balancing Protocol) is an another First Hop Redundancy Protocol. It is a Cisco proprietary protocol like HSRP. So ,you can…


first-hop-redundancy-protocols
First Hop Redundancy Protocols (FHRPs)

First Hop Redundancy Protocols (FHRPs) Redundancy is a common point for today’s High Available Networks. First Hop Redundancy is one of the redundancy mechanisms that provide high available and always…


hsrp-topology
HSRP Configuration on Cisco IOS

HSRP Configuration on Cisco IOS In this section we will do an HSRP configuration to understand the issue better. To do this wewill use the below topology. At the end…


vrrp-configuration
VRRP Configuration on Cisco

VRRP Configuration on Cisco In this VRRP example, we will work on Cisco IOS and configure VRRP (Virtual Router Redundancy Protocol) on Cisco Routers. Configuring VRRP is like configuring Cisco…


vrrp-master-backup-selection-1
VRRP (Virtual Router Redundancy Protocol)

VRRP(Virtual Router Redundancy Protocol) VRRP Overview VRRP (Virtual Router Redundancy Protocol) is a standard based First Hop Redundancy Protocol. It eliminates the single point of failure by using multiple optional…


HSRP-topology
HSRP (Hot Standby Router Protocol)

HSRP (Hot Standby Router Protocol) HSRP(Hot Standby Router Protocol) is a Cisco proprietary First Hop Redundancy protocol. HSRP first hop redundancy mechanism provide alternative path as a proactive action for…


mld-querier-selection-step-2
MLD Operations

MLD Operations In this lesson, we will talk about the specific operations of MLD. We will see; • MLD Querier Selection • MLD General Query, Group Query and Report Mechanism…


cisco-mld-configuration
MLD Configuration on Cisco

MLD Configuration on Cisco In this lesson we will configure Multicast Listener Discovery (MLD) on Cisco devices. Out Multicast Network will be like below: Now, let’s start to configure MLD.…


MLD-topology
MLD (Multicast Listener Discovery)

What is MLD? Multicast Listener Discovery (MLD) is the IPv6 Multicast Group Membership Protocol. It works between the Multicast Routers and the Multicast hosts with Query,Report and Leave Messages. MLD…


huawei-vlan-routing-l2-switch
VLAN Routing with Layer 2 Switch and Router on Huawei

VLAN Routing with Layer 2 Switch and Router VLAN Routing with Layer 2 Switch is done with the help of a Layer 3 device, a router. Mainly, in the router,…


huawei-vlan-routing-l3-switch
VLAN Routing with Layer 3 Switch on Huawei

VLAN Routing with Layer 3 Switch on Huawei We do not need any other Layer 3 device for VLAN Routing with Layer 3 Switch. Because Layer 3 switch can achieve…


juniper-static-routing
Static Routing on Juniper Routers

Static Routing on Juniper Routers Static Routing is the manual route configuration on routers. In JUNOS, static route configuration is done similarly with other Network operating systems. After “static route”…


huawei-advanced-acl-example
Huawei Access-Lists (ACL)

Huawei Access-Lists In this configuration example, we will learn the Access List (ACL) Configuration on Huawei Routers. Configuring Access Lists has some basic steps and we will cover all these…


alcatel-nokia-router-cli
Basic Nokia Service Router Configuration

How to Configure a Nokia Service Router? Command Line Interface (CLI) is the interface that we can configure, manage and maintenance router operations manually. Each Network Engineer works with Command…


iana-rirs-nirs-lirs-isps
Basic Terms for Internet

Basic Terms for Internet Like millions of people on the world, as a network engineer we are also using Internet. But a little different from other people, we also need…


CGMP-Operation-2
Cisco Group Management Protocol (CGMP)

Cisco Group Management Protocol (CGMP) Cisco Group Management Protocol (CGMP) is a Cisco proprietary Layer 2 protocol used for Layer 2 efficiency at layer 2. Basically whenever a host want…


IGMP-example-1
IGMP Snooping

What is IGMP Snooping? IGMP Snooping is a Multicast mechanism that runs on Layer 2 switch. This mechanism checks the IGMP join, leave messages and record the information about user…


cisco-igmp-example
Cisco IGMP Configuration Example

Cisco IGMP Configuration Example In this configuration example, we will configure Cisco Catalyst Switch for IGMP (Internet Group Management Protocol). As you know IGMP is used to manage host memberships…


IGMP-overview
IGMP (Internet Group Management Protocol)

What is IGMP? IGMP (Internet Group Management Protocol) is a Host-Router Multicast Signalling Protocol that provides dynamically registration of the hosts to the desired Multicast Groups. With IGMP, Host requests…


JUNIPER-BGP-next-hop-self-conf
Next Hop Self Command on Juniper Routers

BGP Next Hop Self Configuration on Juniper Routers In BGP Configuration, there are some key commands and concepts used for a better BGP operation. BGP Next Hop Self is one…


Juniper-import-export-policy
Routing Policy Configuration on Juniper Routers

Routing Policy Configuration on Juniper Routers Routing Policies are the rules that allows you to control and modify the default behaviour of the routing protocols like RIP, OSPF, IS-IS etc.…


Juniper-RIP-configuration-example
RIP Configuration on Juniper

RIP Configuration on Juniper In this lesson, we will configure Juniper routers for RIPv2. RIP is the simplest Routing Protocol and configuring RIP on Juniper Routers need a couple of…


Juniper-ISIS-configuration-example
ISIS Configuration on Juniper

How to Configure ISIS on Juniper Routers? IS-IS Protocol is a very good Routing Protocol. But it is rarely used nowadays. Instead ISIS Protocol, OSPF is generally used Routing Protocol.…


Juniper-preferences
Routing Tables of Juniper

Routing Tables of Juniper There are multiple Routing Tables in Juniper Routers. These Routing Tables and their roles are given below: • inet.0 - Stores IPv4 Unicast Routes. • inet.1…


Juniper-OSPFv2-configuration-example
Single Area OSPF (OSPFv2) Configuration on Juniper

Single Area OSPF (OSPFv2) Configuration on Juniper In this lesson, we will see the OSPFv2 Configuration on Juniper for Single Area OSPF.  For this OSPF Example, we will use the…


Juniper-BGP-configuration-example
Basic BGP Configuration on Juniper

BGP is one of the widely used Routing Protocol. It is also known as Internet Protocol. In this Juniper BGP Configuration Example, we will configure BGP on Juniper Routers. We…


Multicast-MAC-addres-creation
Multicast MAC Addresses

What is Multicast MAC Address? Multicast MAC Addresses are the MAC addresses start with 0100:5e . As you know, MAC address has 48 bits and consist of vendor code and…


ip-multicast-addresses
Multicast IP Addressing

Multicast IP Addressing Multicast Addresing is the addressing that is used for Multicast Groups. We can divide Multicast Addressing into two: IPv4 Multicast Addressing IPv6 Multicast Addresing These addresses identifies…


unicast-broadcast-multicast-anycast
Unicast, Broadcast, Multicast, Anycast

There are different transmission techniques in communication if we divide communication according to the receivers. These communication techniques are: Unicast Multicast Broadcast Anycast Unicast is the communication that there is…


bfd-mechanism-failure-example
BFD Operation

BFD Operation BFD (Bidirectional Forwarding Detection) mechanism uses packets to inform both ends that the protocol is configured. With these packets, BFD provide basic connectivity and the parameter negotiation. The…


bfd-session-establishment
Bidirectional Forwarding Detection

Bidirectional Forwarding Detection (BFD) BFD (Bidirectional Forwarding Detection) is basically another Hello protocol based on UDP that detects link failures on forwarding plane. BFD runs on top of Layer 2…


Dynamic-NAT-configuration
NAT Configuration on Huawei Routers

Huawei NAT Configuration NAT (Network Address Translation) is a concept used to translate Private block IP addresses to the Public IP Addresses. By doing this, it provides internet connection to…


huawei-link-aggregation-l3
Link Aggregation on Huawei Routers

Link Aggregation on Huawei Routers Link Aggregation is one of the important lessons of networking. This is also used too much in network operations. In this lesson, we will talk…


tcp-versus-udp
TCP versus UDP

TCP versus UDP Above, we have talked about TCP and UDP as an overview. Here, we will compare these two protocols’s main characteristics. This comparison is very important and generally…


udp-header
UDP (User Datagram Protocol)

UDP (User Datagram Protocol) UDP (User Datagram Protocol) is another Tranport Layer Protocol. It is simpler than TCP. It is generally used in unsenstive communications and real time applications that…


tcp-3-way-handshake
TCP (Transmission Control Protocol)

TCP (Transmission Control Protocol) TCP (Transmission Control Protocol) is the most important Transport Layer Protocol. It is also one of the important Protocols of network world. TCP is used in…


svi-operation
Switch Virtual Interfaces

Inter VLAN Routing, in other words Routing between VLANs can be achieved by SVIs (Switch Virtual Interfaces). Here, we need to have a Multi Layer Switch. Layer 2 switches can…


router-on-stick-operation
Inter VLAN Routing with Router on Stick

What is Inter VLAN Routing? VLANs are used to separate different subnetworks in a big network. If you divide a network with VLANs, each of these new VLANs become a…


network-cable types
Network Cabling

Network Cabling Cabling is the Layer 1 of OSI Model. One of the most important part of a network. With the media the network traffic can travel from one end…


broadcast-and-collision-domains
Hubs, Switches and Routers

We have talked about the Network Devices before. Now, let’s go deeply with some of the important ones. Hubs, Switches and Routers. Here, we will focus on Ethernet Hub vs…


network-devices
Network Devices

Network Devices In computer networks, many different network devices are used. These devices used in computer networks has different characteristics. Each of them provide a specific role. What are these…


Network-Topologies
Network Topologies

Network Topologies Basically a network topology means that, connection style of the network nodes. To build a Network, we need a network topolog. There are different Network Topologies that can…


huawei-ospfv3-configuration
OSPFv3 Configuration on Huawei

In this lesson, we will configure OSPFv3 on Huawei routers. For our OSPFv3 Configuration Example, we will use the below OSPFv3 Network Topology: Let’s start our OSPFv3 Configuration on these…


huawei-ripng-configuration
RIPng Configuration on Huawei

RIPng Configuration on Huawei In this lessons, we will focus on the configuration of the basic IPv6 Routing Protocol, RIPng. We will learn RIPng Configuration on Huawei routers. For our…


nokia-bgp-configuration
Basic BGP Configuration on Nokia 7750 SR

How to COnfigure BGP on Nokia 7750 Service Routers? In this lesson, we will see How to Configure BGP on Nokia 7750 Service Routers. Here, we will use Nokia 7750…


nokia-ospf-configuration
Single Area OSPF Configuration on Nokia 7750 SR

How to Configure OSPFv2 on Nokia Service Routers? In this lesson, we will see How to Configure Single Area OSPF on Nokia (Formerly Alcatel-Lucent) Service Routers. Here, we will use…


Nokia-7450-ESS-Family
Nokia 7450 ESS Family

Nokia 7450 ESS Family Nokia 7450 ESS (Ethernet Service Switch) Family is the high capacity Multi Layer Switch Family that are mainly used in Backbone Networks of various Service Providers.…


Nokia-7750-SR-Family
Nokia 7750 Service Router Family

Nokia 7750 Service Router Family Nokia 7750 SR (Service Router) Family is the high capacity Service Router Family that are mainly used in Backbone Networks of various Service Providers. There…


nokia-7950-XRS-40
Nokia 7950 XRS Family

Nokia 7950 XRS Family Nokia 7950 XRS (Extensible Routing System) Family is the last and highest capacity Routers of Nokia (Formerly Alcatel-Lucent). These high capacity Routers are used in the…


Nokia-Service-Router-Components
Nokia Routers and Multi Layer Switches

Nokia Routers and Multi Layer Switches Nokia (Formerly Alcatel-Lucent) has a very competitive and reliable network devices like its top rival vendors,Cisco, Juniper and Huawei. Especially Routers and Multi Layer…


ip-filter-example
Nokia IP Filter Configuration Example 2

Nokia IP Filter Configuration Example 2 Almost all engineers have realized that, they can access specific subnets and devices but they can not access the others. One of the ways…


ip-filter-restrict-icmp
Nokia IP Filter Configuration Example 1

Nokia IP Filter Configuration Example 1 Here, we will show the IP Filter Configuration on Nokia (Formerly Alcatel-Lucent) Service Routers with an example. To do this, we will create an…


ip-filter-configuration-nokia
IP Filters (Access-Lists)

IP Filters (Access-Lists) IP Filters, are the rules that force the router to permit or to deny mentioned IP addresses, ports, protocols etc. from a source to a destinatio in…


osi-versus-tcpip
TCP/IP Model

TCPIP Model Overview TCP IP Model is another important referance model beside OSI Model in network world. OSI Referance Model was Seven Layered model, TCPIP Model is Four Layered or…


osi-model-headers
OSI Referance Model

OSI Model and TCP/IP Model Communication in a network has different layers and these different layers are mentioned in two different models. In other words,there are two common models in…


ppp-session-establishment
HDLC and PPP

HDLC and PPP HDLC (High-Level Data Link Control) HDLC (High-Level Data Link Control) is a Layer 2 WAN Encapsulation Protocol that is used on syncronous data links. It is the…


cisco-ppp-configuration
PPP Configuration on Cisco

PPP Configuration on Cisco In this lesson, we will talk about PPP Configuration on Cisco Routers. PPP is the general standard for point-to-point wan connection. For our PPP Configuration example,…


cisco-hdlc-configuration
HDLC Configuration on Cisco

HDLC Configuration on Cisco In this lesson, we will talk about HDLC configuration on Cisco Routers. Cisco HDLC has a different proprietary field in the data field of the protocol.…


wan-topology
WAN and WAN Technologies

WAN and WAN Technologies WAN (Wide Area Network) is the network that connects the geographical far areas. It can be used for a client to connect to the corporate network,…


huawei-ppp-configuration
PPP Configuration on Huawei

PPP Configuration on Huawei In this lesson, we will talk about PPP configuration on Huawei Routers. For our PPP Configuration example, we will use the below basic topology: Orderly, we…


huawei-hdlc-configuration
HDLC Configuration on Huawei

HDLC Configuration on Huawei In this lesson, we will talk about HDLC configuration on Huawei Routers. For our HDLC Configuration example, we will use the below basic topology: Orderly, we…


rstp-port-roles
Rapid Spanning Tree Protocol (RSTP)

Rapid Spanning Tree Protocol (RSTP) is the second STP type. It is a fast converged version of Spanning Tree Protocol as its name implies. RSTP bypass the Blocking State and…


stp-port-selection
Spanning Tree Protocol Operation

Spanning Tree Protocol Operation Spanning Tree Protocol (STP) Operation is done with various sub processes. In this lesson, we will talk about each of these sub processes and explain STP…


l2-redundancy-broadcast-storm
Spanning Tree Protocol (STP)

Spanning Tree Protocol (STP) STP Overview In Layer 2 domain, redundancy is an important case. To provide redundant links, multiple connections are done between switches. But this redundancy mechanism can…


huawei-rstp-example-topology
RSTP Configuration on Huawei

RSTP Configuration on Huawei In this lessons, we will focus on RSTP (Rapid Spanning Tree Protocol) Configuration on Huawei Switches. For our Huawei RSTP Example, we will use the basic…


huawei-stp-configuration
STP Configuration on Huawei

Huawei STP Configuration In this lessons, we will focus on STP (Spanning Tree Protocol) Configuration on Huawei Switches. For our Huawei STP Example, we will use the basic topology below.…


nokia-ies-service-configuration-example
IES (Internet Enhanced Services) Configuration

IES (Internet Enhanced Services) Configuration In this article, we will focus on how to configure IES on Nokia Service Routers. Here, our Service Router will be SR 7750. For our…


alcatel-ies-service
IES ( Internet Enhanced Services)

IES ( Internet Enhanced Services) IES (Internet Enhanced Services) is an Nokia (Formerly Alcatel-Lucent) Service that provide Internet Access to the Customers. Here, from the customer view, IES is a…


aaa-authentication-table
Authentication, Authorization, Accounting (AAA)

AAA (Authentication, Authorization, Accounting) AAA is the abbreviation for Authentication, Authorization and Accounting terms. This mechanims provide security and some user specific steps for a user that access to the…


alcatel-interface-configuration
Interface Configuration on Nokia Routers

Interface Configuration on Nokia Routers To configure an interface on Nokia Routers, on ALU TiMOS, is a little different that we do on Cisco routers, on Cisco IOS. In Nokia…


icmp-header-how
ICMP (Internet Control Message Protocol)

ICMP (Internet Control Message Protocol) ICMP (Internet Control Message Protocol) is a Layer 3 Protocol used in IP networks. It is sent as encapsulated in IP packet. The general role…


cisco-gvrp-configuration
GVRP Configuration on Cisco

GVRP Configuration on Cisco In this configuration example, we will focus on how to configure GVRP on Cisco. Here, for our GVRP Configuration Example, we will use the below topology.…


gvrp-configuration-huawei
GVRP Configuration on Huawei

GVRP Configuration on Huawei GVRP is the standard based counterpart of Cisco VTP. In this configuration example, we will focus on how to configure GVRP on Huawei switches. For out…


cisco-mvrp-configuration
MVRP Configuration on Cisco

MVRP Configuration on Cisco In this configuration example, we will focus on how to configure MVRP on Cisco switches. Here, we will use Cisco Catalyst 6500 series switches. For our…


juniper-mvrp-configuration
MVRP Configuration on Juniper

MVRP Configuration on Juniper MVRP is the protocol that provides dynamic VLAN registration and creation. The counterparts of MVRP are Cisco VTP and standard GVRP. MVRP is an enhanced version…


mvrp-registration-modes
MVRP (Multiple VLAN Registration Protocol)

MVRP (Multiple VLAN Registration Protocol) MVRP Overview MVRP (Multiple VLAN Registration Protocol) is the counterpart protocol of Cisco VTP and GVRP (GARP VLAN Registration Protocol). It is the last standard…


gvrp-and-vlans
GVRP (GARP VLAN Registration Protocol)

GVRP (GARP VLAN Registration Protocol) GVRP Overview GVRP(GARP VLAN Registration Protocol) is a protocol that is used to control VLANs, dynamic VLAN registration and VLAN prunning in a network. GVRP…


huawei-ipsec-configuration-example
IPSec VPN Configuration On Huawei

IPSec VPN Configuration On Huawei In this lesson we will see IPSec VPN Configuration On Huawei Routers. IPSec configurations has some basic steps. These steps are given below: • IPSec…


ipsec-ah-esp-modes-k
IPSec VPN Overview

IPSec VPN Overview IPSec VPN provides a Private and Secure IP communication over a Public Network Infrastructure. With this technology, different sites or users in different geographical areas can communicate…


huawei-snmp-example-k
SNMP Configuration on Huawei

How to Configure SNMP on Huawei Routers? In this article we will focus on How to Configure SNMP on Huawei devices. We will use the below simple topology and we…


snmp-architecture
SNMP – Overview

SNMP (Simple Network Management Protocol) Overview Simple Network Management Protocol (SNMP) is the main protocol of Network Management. With SNMP, network devices are easily managed and conttolled by a central…


vpws-cpipe
VPWS (Virtual Private Wire Service) – Fpipe, Apipe and Cpipe Configuration

Fpipe, Apipe and Cpipe Configuration In the previous articles, we have seen Epipe Configuration examples. Here, we will focus on another VPWS types, Fpipe, Apipe and Cpipe. Fpipe Configuration Fpipe…


distributed-epipe-configuration -k
VPWS – Distributed Epipe Configuration

VPWS – Distributed Epipe Configuration In the previous Epipe Example, we have talked about Local Epipe Configuration. So, we have used only one device and our Epipe service was in…


local-epipe-configuration
VPWS – Local Epipe Configuration

VPWS – Local Epipe Configuration In the previous part we have talked about the VPWS service of Alcatel-Lucent. In this article we will focus on the configuration of the VPWS…


Virtual-Private-Wire-Service
VPWS (Virtual Private Wire Service)

VPWS (Virtual Private Wire Service) VPWS (Virtual Private Wire Service) is Point-to-Point Layer 2 VPN Service of Alcatel-Lucent Service Routers. The other Layer 2 VPN Service is VPLS that will…


Huawei-gre-tunnel-example-k
Huawei GRE Tunnel Configuration

How to Configure GRE Tunnel on Huawei Routers? In this lesson, we will use Huawei Routers, to configure GRE Tunnels. For our example, we will use the topology given below:…


GRE Tunnel Configuration with Packet Tracer (Cisco)

Packet Tracer GRE Tunnel Configuration In this confgiuration example, we will see how to configure Cisco GRE (Generic Routing Encapsulation) Tunnel with Packet Tracer. For our GRE Tunnel Configuration example,…


gre-tunnel-topology-
GRE Tunnel Overview

GRE (Generic Routing Encapsulation) GRE (Generic Routing Encapsulation) is the mechanism that encapsulate one protocol in another protocol and provides connection between the nodes. This is done basically IP over…


home-ip-allocation-k
Home Network IP Address Allocation and Internet Connection

Home Network IP Address Allocation and Internet Connection The Internet Connection of our home's need some basic devices, protocols and steps. In this article, we will see how our small…


subnetting-example-ipcisco-k
IP Subnetting and Subnetting Examples

IP Subnetting As we talked about before, there are two parts in an IP Address. One for them is Network part and the another is Host part. With IP Subnetting,…


ip-address-distribution-RIRs-k
IP Addressing (IPv4)

IP Addressing (IPv4) IP Addressing is one of the key point that a network engineer need to learn first. In this article we will start with the distribution of the…


administrative-distance-cisco-alcatel-huawei-juniper
IP and Layer 3 Overview

IP and Layer 3 Overview Layer 3 is one of the important Layer of OSI Model. This corresponds Internet Layer of TCP/IP Model. Layer 3 or Internet Layer handles end…


vprn-data-plane-operation-k
VPRN Data Plane Activities

VPRN Data Plane is the place that the traffic is sent and received generally. As we mentioned before, CE devices are the devices that are not MPLS capable.They do not…


vprn-control-plane
VPRN Control Plane Activities

As a basic definition, Control Plane is the time that routing exchange activities are done in VPRN Networks. These are the necesssary routing information exchange of the VPRN routers. Beginning…


vprn-mpls-labels-2
VPRN Labels

VPRN is an IP/MPLS Layer 3 VPN Service. So, it uses the same Labels used in IP/MPLS. In MPLS and VPLS articles we have talked about MPLS Labels. Here, we…


vprn
How Does VPRN Work?

How Does VPRN Work? Basically in a VPRN Architecture, there is a Service buy phentermine online canadian pharmacy Provider Network and there are multiple branches of multiple customers. Service Provider…


huawei-dhcp-configuration-example-
DHCP Configuration On Huawei Routers

Huawei DHCP Configuration In this DHCP example we will configure a Huawei Router as a DHCP Server. After the configuration, a host device, here a PC, will receive its IP…


dhcp-messages-and-ip-allocation-
DHCP IP Allocation Operation

How Does DHCP Achieve IP Allocation Operation? DHCP does its job with Messages like many protocol. Here, as we mentined before, DHCP uses DHCP Messages. Let’s see how these DHCP…


dhcp-ip-allocation-messages-
DHCP (Dynamic Host Configuration Protocol)

In a network all the Layer 3 devices need to have an IP address. These IP addresses can be given manually one by one or dynamically and automatically with IP…


VPLS Labelling (Tunnel and Service Labels)

VPLS Labelling (Tunnel and Service Labels) As we discussed in the MPLS articles before, for MPLS we need labels. VPLS is also a MPLS Service, so we need to use…


vpls-mac-learning-
VPLS MAC Learning

VPLS MAC Learning VPLS is a Leyer 2 VPN technology. Becuase of its Layer 2 nature, "MAC Learning" is very important for VPLS. So, how does VPLS learn MAC Addresses?…


vpls-topologies-hierarchical-
VPLS Topologies

VPLS Topologies VPLS can be defined on One Service Router or on Multiple Service Routers. Basically we can divide VPLS into two here. The first one is VPLS, that is…


isis-for-ipv6-topology2
ISIS For IPv6 Configuration Example on Cisco IOS

How to Configure ISIS For IPv6 on Cisco? In this Cisco ISIS for IPv6 configuration example, we will configure ISIS with IPv6 extension configuration commands. For our example we will…


isis-single-multi-topology-sfp-restriction2
ISIS for IPv6

Intermediate System to Intermediate System for IPv6 ISIS is one of the important Link-State protocols. With entrence of IPv6 to the network world, ISIS also need to uptade itself for…


eigrp-for-ipv6-example-topology2
EIGRP For IPv6 Configuration On Cisco IOS

EIGRP for IPv6 is one of the most used routing protocol with IPv6. In this example, we will see how to configure EIGRP for IPv6 on Cisco routers. For our…


EIGRP-for-ipv6-conf-2
EIGRP for IPv6

We can define “EIGRP for IPv6” as the enhancements that is done in EIGRP for IPv6 support. Basically, EIGRP protocol is the same protocol but it has some additional properties…


RIPng-example-topology-2
RIPng Configuration Example on Cisco IOS

RIPng Configuration Example on Cisco IOS RIPng Configuration On Cisco IOS The configuration of RIPng is a little different from its predecessor, RIPv2. First of all, RIPng is IPv6 avare…


ipv6-static-route-ipcisco-2
IPv6 Static and Default Route Configuration on Cisco IOS

IPv6 Static and Default Route Configuration on Cisco IOS IPv6 Static Route Configuration on Cisco IOS As you know, static route is the route that you manually define on a…


ospfv3-topology-ipcisco
OSPFv3 Configuration Example on Cisco IOS

OSPFv3 Cisco Configuration OSPFv3 is the IPv6 cabaple version of OSPF. The previous version of OSPF was OSPFv2. OSPFv2 is for IPv4. Here, we will configure OSPFv3 for the below…


isis-topology-ipcisco-2
ISIS Configuration Example on Cisco IOS

In this Cisco ISIS configuration example, we will configure an ISIS domain and see how to establish ISIS Routing. For our example we will use the below four-routered topology. Here,…


protected-port-topology
What is Protected Port ?

Protected Ports are one of the security mechanisms used on switch world. By default all the switch ports are unprotected and equal. But with Protected Port Configuration, some ports are…


private-vlans-example
Private VLAN Cisco Configuration Example

Cisco Private VLAN Configuration Example For Private VLAN configuration, we will do a configuration example with one switch and one router. Here, we will use the same topology that we…


Private-vlan-ports
Private VLANs (pVLANs)

Private VLANs (pVLANs) VLANs used to divide the Broadcast Domains. With this division, different departments, networks are isolated each other and become another Broadcast Domain. Sometimes, this separation is not…


huawei-vlan-configuration-example
VLAN Configuration on Huawei Switches

How to Configure VLAN on Huawei Switches? VLAN configuration on Huawei switch is not too different than Cisco VLAN configuration. But there are some differences. In this lesson, we will…


Extended acl with packet tracer
Extended Access List Configuration With Packet Tracer

Packet Tracer Extended Access Lists Configuration In this lesson we will focus on Extended Access Lists Configuration with Cisco Packet Tracer. We will use the below topology for our packet…


standard acl configuration packet tracer
Standard Access List Configuration With Packet Tracer

Packet Tracer Standard Access List Configuration In this lesson we will see the Standard Access-List and how to configure Standart Access-List in Packet Tracer. There are three types Access Lists…


basic router security ipcisco
Basic Cisco Router Security Configuration

How to Secure a Cisco Router Basically? Security is an important concern for a network engineer. How can a network engineer provide security of a router? In this Basic Cisco…


administrative groups link coloring after cspf
Traffic Engineering, RSVP-TE Path Manuplation and Constraints

RSVP-TE Path Manuplation and Constraints Traffic Engineering is one of the most important routing lessons. With traffic engineering, as a network engineer you are directing your network traffic according to…


RIP IPv6 RIPng topology
IPv6 Routing Protocols – Part 4 (RIPng)

RIPng (RIP Next Generation), RIP for IPv6 RIPng (RIP Next Generation)is the IPv6 available next level protocol of RIPv2. In modern large networks, generally RIP is not used and also…


IPCisco-Cisco-Juniper-Alcatel-Huawei-CheatSheet
COMPARISON OF TOP FOUR VENDORS’S COMMAND LINE

COMPARISON OF TOP FOUR VENDORS’S COMMAND LINE In IP world, there are many Network Equipment Vendors. But some of these Network Equipment Vendors are very Common in Network World and…


eigrp-packet-tracer-ipcisco
EIGRP Configuration With Packet Tracer

Packet Tracer EIGRP Configuration EIGRP (Enhanced Interior Gateway Routing Protocol), is a Cisco Proprietary Hybrid Routing Protocol. The configuration of EIGRP is similar to other Routing Protocols. In this example,…


eigrp-successor-feasible-succesor-ipcisco
EIGRP - Part 4 (Other EIGRP Properties)

Key Configurations on EIGRP EIGRP is an Enhanced Dynamic Routing Protocol that provide many methods for a good Routing Protocol implementation. In this lesson, we will focus on some of…


eigrp-packet-types-ipcisco
EIGRP - Part 3 (EIGRP Packet Types and Neighbourship)

EIGRP Packet Types EIGRP (Enhanced Interior Gateway Routing Protocol) uses EIGRP Messages to establish and maintain the EIGRP Neighborship. In other words, it uses different EIGRP Packet Types for its…


eigrp-table-types-ipcisco
EIGRP - Part 2 (EIGRP Tables)

EIGRP Tables EIGRP uses different tables for its Routing Operation. Mainly, three types of EIGRP Tables are used in EIGRP (Enhanced Interior Gateway Routing Protocol). What are the EIGRP Tables?…


eigrp-neighbourship-establishment-ipcisco
EIGRP - Part 1

EIGRP Overview EIGRP Protocol is one of the most used Dynamic Routing Protocol as IGP (Interior Gateway Protocol). Especially it is used for Routing purpose inside the networks that is mostly consist of Cisco devices. EIGRP…


RSTP Configuration Example
RSTP Configuration on Packet Tracer

Packet Tracer RSTP Configuration As you know, STP (Spanning Tree Protocol) is the key protocol of Switching world. With STP, link redundancy is provided and switching loops are avoided. STP…


STP Portfast Configuration
STP Portfast Configuration with Packet Tracer

STP Portfast Configuration with Packet Tracer In STP (Spanning Tree Protocol) there are Blocking State, Listenning State, Learning State and Forwarding State. With STP Portfast, Listenning State and Learning State…


switch-virtual-interfaces-ipcisco
Switch Virtual Interface Configuration on Packet Tracer

Theorically switches work in Layer 2 (Layer 2 switches). When you talk about switches, generally you do not think IP addresses. One of the ways that make a switch IP…


Router-On-Stick-ipcisco
Inter VLAN Routing Configuration on Packet Tracer (Router on Stick)

Router on Stick Configuration on Packet Tracer VLANs are the virtual LANS that provide divide your big network, into smaller pieces. Many companies use to divide their networks into different…


isis-topology-2
Routing With IS-IS Protocol - Part 5 (IS-IS versus OSPF)

IS-IS versus OSPF IS-IS Protocol and OSPF have some similarities and differences. Lets firstly check the similarities of these two protocol one by one: - IS-IS Protocol and OSPF are…


isis-adjacency-states
Routing With IS-IS Protocol - Part 4 (IS-IS Adjacency)

IS-IS Protocol Adjacency There are three types adjacency in IS-IS Protocol.These are: - Level 1 routers form L1 adjacency with L1 and L1/2 Routers - Level 2 routers form L2…


isis-helllos-ipcisco
Routing With IS-IS Protocol - Part 3 (IS-IS Packet Types)

IS-IS Packet Types IS-IS Protocol uses L2 encapsulation Ethernet 802.3/802.2. It do not use Ethernet II. Ethernet II is used for IP traffic. IS-IS Protocol exchanges protocol information by using…


ISIS-address-format-ipcisco
Routing With IS-IS Protocol - Part 2 (IS-IS Addresses)

IS-IS Protocol Addresses IS-IS (Intermediate System to Intermediate System) Protocol was developed as a OSI network protocol, not TCP/IP. So, normally IS-IS Protocol not uses IP address, but it uses…


basic-is-is-topology-ipcisco
Routing With IS-IS Protocol - Part 1

Routing With IS-IS Protocol IS-IS (Intermediate System to Intermediate System Protocol) is a Link-State routing protocol that is developed by ANSI ISO. It is an open standard and classless Interior…


cisco-xr-bundle-topology-ipcisco
Link Aggregation on Cisco IOS XR

Link Aggregation on Cisco IOS XR Link aggregation, LAG, Bundle, EtherChannel, what ever you say, they have the same logic in real. So, the configuration logic of Link Aggregation (LAG)…


cisco-vpls-configuration-example-ipcisco
Cisco VPLS Configuration

How to Configure VPLS on Cisco Routers? In this VPLS Example, we will focus on the VPLS (Virtual Private LAN Service) Configuration on Cisco Catalyst 6500 Series Switches. We will…


basic-vpls-architecture-ipcisco
VPLS Versus h-VPLS

VPLS Versus h-VPLS VPLS (Virtual Private LAN Service) and h-VPLS (Hierarhical VPLS) has some common and different properties. So they have different advantages and disadvantages.In this article, we will focus…


h-vpls-architecture-ipcisco
Hierachical-VPLS (H-VPLS)

H-VPLS (Hierarchical VPLS) H-VPLS (Hierarchical VPLS) is the more scalable version of VPLS. Basically, H-VPLS has some architectural difference than flat VPLS. VPLS Architecture, Flat VPLS In H-VPLS, there are…


bgp-med
BGP Path Attributes - MED

BGP MED (Multi Exit Discriminator) Attribute is the BGP Path attribute which provides information to the external neighbours, about how to come their Autonomous System. This is opposite of Local…


bgp-path-attribute-origin-ipcisco
BGP Path Attributes - Origin

BGP Path Attributes - Origin BGP Origin Attribute informs the Autonomous Systems (AS) about the originator of that route. It is a Well-Known Mandatory BGP Path attribute like AS Path…


as-path-topology
BGP Path Attributes - AS Path

BGP AS Path Attribute AS Path Attribute is another Well-Known and Mandatory BGP Path Attribute. Here, as we have discusssed before, Well-Known means “it is supported by every BGP implementation”…


bgp-path-attribute-local-preference-ipcisco-
BGP Path Attributes - Local Preference

What is BGP Local Preference Attribute? In BGP Path selection algorithm, if your device is a different vendor product (not Cisco), the first BGP Path Attribute that is taken into…


bgp-path-attribute-weight-ipcisco
BGP Path Attributes - Weight

BGP Path Attributes - Weight Attribute Weight Attribute is a Cisco proprietary BGP Path Attribute that is the first step in the BGP Best Path Selection Algorithm. In Cisco devices,…


lldp-neighbour-discovery
Neighbour Discovery Protocols - Part 6 ( LLDP Cisco Configuration)

LLDP Cisco Configuration To understand LLDP better, let’s check the configure of LLDP on the Cisco IOS. The most important commands related with LLDP configuration is showed below.   LLDP…


lldp-med
Neighbour Discovery Protocols - Part 5 ( LLDP-MED )

LLDP-MED (Link Layer Discovery Protocol-Media Endpoint Discovery) As a standard and open protocol, LLDP is a good protocol. After the development of LLDP, some of the additional properties needed especially…


CDP Packet Tracer Example
Neighbour Discovery Protocols - Part 4 (CDP Configuration with Packet Tracer)

CDP Configuration with Packet Tracer As we talked about in the previous article, CDP is Cisco specific. In this article, we will discuss how to configure the CDP in Cisco…


network-neighbour-discovery-
Neighbour Discovery Protocols - Part 3 ( CDP )

Cisco Discovery Protocol (CDP) CDP (Cisco Discovery Protocol) is a Cisco specific neighbour discovery protocol works on Layer 2. CDP (Cisco Discovery Protocol) is also licensed to run on some…


how-lldp-works
Neighbour Discovery Protocols - Part 2 ( LLDP )

LLDP (Link Layer Discovery Protocol) LLDP (Link Layer Discovery Protocol) is a Standard Neighbour Discovery Protocol that is used by all vendors. Like all other Neighbour Discovery Protocols, LLDP works…


neighbour-discovery-protocols
Neighbor Discovery Protocols - Part 1

Neighbour Discovery Protocols Neigbour Discovery Protocols provides directly connected devices to discover and collect information about each other. Network devices can provide directly connected neighbour device’s identification, configuration and any…


rip-configuration-example
RIP Configuration With Packet Tracer

Packet Tracer RIP Configuration In this article, we will focus on how to configure RIP (Routing Information Protocol) on Cisco Routers. Generally in all network courses, RIP is used to…


routing-with-rip
Routing With RIP (Routing Information Protocol)

Routing With RIP (Routing Information Protocol)   RIPv2 Overview RIP (Routing Information Protocol) is a Distance Vector Routing Protocol. It is the simplest Routing Protocol. So, Routing with RIP is…


How Will Be Our Lifes With IoT ?

How Will Be Our Lifes With IoT ? IoT (Internet of Things) will create values in many parts of our lifes. From home to work, city to urban IoT will…


The Future Technolgy : Internet of Things (IoT)

The Future Technolgy : Internet of Things (IoT) IoT is the abbreviation of Internet of Things. And Internet of Things is basically connecting IP available devices (even if they are…


packet-tracer-vlan-topology
Packet Tracer VLAN Configuration Example

Packet Tracer VLAN Configuration As an example, you can see a VLAN topology below. In this topology, 2 Cisco Catalyst 2950-24 switches and 6 PCs are used.   Packet Tracer…


vlan-topology
How to Configure Cisco VLANs

Cisco VLAN Config Commands In this lesson we will learn How to Configure VLANs on Cisco devices. Here, we will see the necessary commands for Cisco VLAN Configuration. You can…


vlan frame tagging protocols
DTP and VLAN Frame Tagging protocols ISL, dot1.q

VLAN Frame Tagging Protocols (ISL and dot1.q) In this lesson, we will learn VLAN Frame Tagging Protocols detailly. In the next lessons, you can also check Cisco VLAN Configuration Examples.…


vlan port assignment
VLAN Port Assignment and VLAN Port Types

In this lesson, we will focus on some of the key lessons of VLANs. We will learn how to assign ports to VLAN, VLAN Port types and VLAn Tagging. Static…


vlans
VLANs (Virtual Local Area Networks)

What is a VLAN? In this lesson, we will talk about one of the key lessons in networking, especially in switching. We will explain VLAN definition and we will learn…


5620 Service Avare Manager
Nokia 5620 SAM (Service Avare Manager)

Nokia 5620 SAM (Service Avare Manager) Nokia 5620 Service Aware Manager (SAM) is the network and service management application of Nokia. It is generally used on service providers’s big netwoks…


BGP Path Attributes and BGP Administrative Distance

BGP Path Attributes BGP uses BGP Path Attributes to determine the Best Path to a destination. According to BGP Best Path Algorithm, BGP Path Attributes are used to determine the…


bgp-ibgp-ebgp
BGP - Part 2 (BGP Peers, BGP Sessions, BGP Messages)

BGP Peers, BGP Sessions and BGP Messages What is BGP peer? To use BGP, the neighbourship between the BGP routers must be established. You can use the statement BGP neighbour…


border gateway protocol
BGP - Part 1

BGP (Border Gateway Protocol) AS you know there are two types of routing protocols in general. These are IGP(Interor Gateway Protocols) and EGP(Exterior Gateway Protocols). In the previous posts we…


bgp-ibgp-ebgp
BGP - Part 3 (IBGP, IBGP Topologies and EBGP)

IBGP and EBGP In the previous post, we have talked about BGP generally. In this post we will handle IBGP and EBGP detailed.   IBGP and EBGP  IBGP (Internal Border…


traffic-flow-without-ECMP
ECMP (Equal Cost Multi Path)

ECMP (Equal Cost Multi Path) If the total IGP cost to a destination are same for two path, these paths are called Equal Cost Multi Path. Normally if there are…


LDP-configuratio
LDP Configuration on Nokia Routers

LDP Configuration on Nokia Routers To do an LDP Configuration Example , we will use the below basic topology. Here, we will configure these two routers to become an LDP…


label-distribution-and-traffic-flow
MPLS Label Distribution Protocol, LDP - Part 2

Label Distribution After LDP session establishment, labels are distributed from the Tail-End router to the Head-End router for each prefix. This process occurs at the opposite direction of the data…


transport tunnel service tunnel
MPLS Label Distribution Protocol, LDP - Part 1

MPLS Label Distribution Protocol, LDP LDP (Label Distribution Protocol) is one of the two label exchange protocols of MPLS. The other is RSVP (Resource Reservation Protocol). And there is also…


lte_a_carrier_aggregation
LTE Advanced (LTE-A) Features

LTE Advanced (LTE-A) Features As you know after LTE, LTE-A (LTE Advanced) is the next step of mobile technology. In this article, I will try to explain this LTE-A (LTE…


2g 3g network view
4G – LTE (Long Term Evolution)

4G LTE (Long Term Evolution) As you know mobile telecommunication has evolved for years. With this evolution, new network elements were included or the existing ones were upgraded. Startig with…


OSPF Area Types 3
OSPF Area Types on Packet Tracer (NSSA and Totally NSSA)

Not So Stubby Area (NSSA) Not So Stubby Area name is the most funny name in network world, I think : ) Funny and useful. With NSSA, the External LSAs…


OSPF Area Types
OSPF Area Types on Packet Tracer (OSPF External Routes)

OSPF External Routes Example on Cisco Packet Tracer As you know External Routes are the routes that provide connection to the other networks working with different IGP. Here, we are…


ospf area types
OSPF Area Types on Packet Tracer (Standard Area, Backbone Area)

OSPF Backbone Area, Standard Area and Vitual-Links In this article series we will concentrate on OSPF Area Types and their configuration examples on Packet Tracer. You can DOWNLOAD the Packet…


VPRN Example Topology
VPRN Configuration on Nokia Service Routers

In this post, we will focus on the configuration of VPRN service on Alcatel-Lucent Service Routers. Here, We will use Alcatel-Lucent 7450 Service Router as a PE Router. Our Provider…


Logical-view-of-VPRN
VPRN (Virtual Private Routed Network)

VPRN Overview VPRN (Virtual Private Routed Network) is a Multipoint-to-Multiponit Layer 3 VPN Service that connects multiple branches in a single logical routed architecture over IP/MPLS network of a Service…


vpls
VPLS Configuration on Nokia Service Routers

VPLS Configuration on Nokia Service Routers Before any Service configuration, our IGP configuration must be done and the network must be converged. We had talked about this preparations in the…


vpls architecture
VPLS (Virtual Private LAN Service)

VPLS (Virtual Private LAN Service) VPLS is a Multipoint-to-Multipoint Layer 2 VPN Service that connects multiple branches of a Customer, in a single logical switched architecture over Service Provider IP/MPLS…


sevice-core-network-topology
Network Preparation for Nokia L2 VPN and L3 VPN Services

Network Preparation for Nokia (Alcatel-Lucent) L2 VPN and L3 VPN Services In the first part of this article series we talked about service terms and some steps about service creation…


Logical-view-of-IES
Nokia L2 VPN and L3 VPN Services

Nokia L2 VPN and L3 VPN Services In this article we will talk about Service types used in Alcatel-Lucent Service Routers. Why Alcatel-Lucent use "Service Router" term for their service…


Alcatel-Lucent-Service-Routers-Service-Logic
Nokia VPN Service Terms and Creation Steps

Nokia VPN Service Terms and Creation Steps Service perspective is a Nokia's view for providing internet and VPN services to the customers. There are many services in Nokia Service Routers.…


VPN-Labels
Nokia VPN Services Tunnel Structure

Nokia VPN Services Tunnel Structure In this article I want to tell you about the tunnels used for services that is set up via MPLS. Here there are some key…


Link-Aggregation-Nokia
Link Aggregation Configuration on Nokia Routers

Link Aggregation (LAG) Configuration on Nokia Routers In the previous article we focus on how to configure Link Aggregation on Cisco and Juniper devices. Here we will see how is…


Link-Aggregation-Juniper
Link Aggregation – Part 3 (LACP Configuration on Juniper Devices)

LACP Configuration on Juniper Devices We have talked about LACP in the previous articles on Cisco Routers. Here we will focus on how to do this configuration on Juniper devices…


Link-Aggregation-Example
LACP Configuration on Cisco Devices

LACP Configuration on Cisco Devices In this article we will make a link aggregation protocol with two ports in one bundle. You can use more port up to 8 ports…


Link-Aggregation-Cisco
Link Aggregation – Part 1 (Link Aggregation Control Protocol, LACP)

Link Aggregation Control Protocol (LACP) Link Aggregation is bundling two or more links as one logical link for increasing bandwidth and availability. This can be done by one of the…


common-cisco-router-configuration
Common Cisco Router Configuration on Packet Tracer

Common Router Configurationon Packet Tracer In this post, we will see how to configure a Cisco router basically with the help of Packet Tracer.This post will be an entrance to…


spanning-tree-configuration-example
STP (Spanning Tree Protocol) Example on Packet Tracer

Packet Tracer STP Configuration In this post, instead of detaily talk about STP (Spanning Tree Protocol), we will focus on a basic Switching Loop topology and how STP mechanism helps…


rsvp-configuration-example
MPLS RSVP-TE Configuration on Nokia Routers

RSVP-TE Nokia (Alcatel-Lucent) Configuration Prerequisites and Configuring RSVP-TE - Configure IGP. - Enable MPLS context. - Enable RSVP context. - Configure interfaces for MPLS ( automatically RSVP). Let’s check these…


path message label request message
MPLS, RSVP-TE - Part 1

RSVP-TE (Resource Reservation Protocol-Traffic Engineering) RSVP-TE(Resource Reservation Protocol-Traffic Engineering) is the enhanced RSVP for MPLS. RSVP-TE is not a real routing protocol, but it works with routing protocols. For RSVP-TE,…


MPLS Label Distribution Protocol, LDP – Part 5 (Export and Import Policy, Prefix Aggregation)

Export and Import Policy and Prefix Aggregation with LDP LDP and Export Policy By default ALU only distribute a label only for its system addresses. To distribute additional other local…


transport tunnel service tunnel
MPLS Label Distribution Protocol, LDP – Part 6 (T-LDP)

As we talked about, LSRs(P routers) are not service avare, they do not know anything about services. So they use only the outer label. But PE routers are service avare…


MPLS Label Distribution Protocol, LDP – Part 7 (CR-LDP)

CR-LDP (Contraint-based Routing LDP) Before discussing the CE-LDP, lets explaint “constraint-based routing” term. "Contraint-based Routing" is the routing which in which the routing process is done according to some constraints.…


switch port security
Switch Port Security Configuration with Cisco Packet Tracer

In this article, we will focus on detailed Port Security Configuration. For our Port Security Configuration, we will use the below topology. In this topology we will make examples for…


switch port security
Switch Port Security - Part 1

Port Security is the security mechanism used in switches. With Port Security mechanism, a specific port of a switch can be protected with undesirable access. The MAC address numbers connected…


next-hop-self
BGP Next Hop Self Command

BGP Next Hop Self Command In this post, we will talk about an important and mostly used command of BGP. This command is used under the BGP process in the…


Basic-BGP-Topology
BGP Configuration Example with Packet Tracer

Packet Tracer BGP Configuration Example To understand BGP (Border Gateway Protocol) better, we will make a basic Packet Tracer BGP Configuration example. Because of the limited numbers of commands available…


ping command
Ping Command (Pinging Peers)

Ping Command and Ping Command Options Whenever other engineers see network engineers during troubleshooting, they think that, network engineers only ping from one node to another. But as you know…


mpls-point-of-local-repair-(PLR)-and-merge-point-(MP)
MPLS Protection and Restoration – Part 5 (Fast Reroute Protection Types)

Fast Reroute Protection Types Both One-to-One and Facility Backup can protect different network elements. And these can be achieved by two ways: - Node Protection : Protect against the failure…


mpls-point-of-local-repair-(PLR)-and-merge-point-(MP)
MPLS Protection and Restoration – Part 4 (Local Protection, Fast Reroute)

MPLS Local Protection (Fast Reroute) The goal of the protection is minimizing the down time. To do this, protection must be done near to the failure. Local protection does this.…


MPLS Strict Path
MPLS Protection and Restoration – Part 3 (Path Diversity in Secondary Paths)

Path Diversity in Secondary Paths As we say in the following articles, while using Secondary LSP-Paths, sharing links between Primary and Secondary LSP-Paths must be avoided. We can say this…


mpls-end-to-end-protection-primary-path-and-secondary-path
MPLS Protection and Restoration – Part 2 (End-to-End Protection, Secondary Paths)

MPLS Protection Types There are some different types traffic protections. In general we can divide these types into two groups. End-to-end Protection and Local Protection. End-to-end Protection is using Secundary…


mpls-protected-path-and-backup-path
MPLS Protection and Restoration – Part 1

MPLS Protection and Restoration,MPLS Recovery As you know, we can prioritize some of the traffic with MPLS-TE because of their nature. The high priority can be given to the voice…


MPLS Protection and Restoration – Part 9 (MPLS Convergence Factors)

MPLS Convergence Factors After the link failure in MPLS network, there are some actions need to be done orderly for MPLS recovery. This actions need to converge the MPLS network…


MPLS Protection and Restoration – Part 8 (Actions After the Failure)

MPLS Recovery, Actions After the Failure What Happens After the Failure Recovered By Fast Reroute (FRR) ? After detecting the failure in an MPLS network, in Fast Reroute (FRR) mechanism,…


MPLS Protection and Restoration – Part 7 (Verification Commands on Alcatel-Lucent Routers)

MPLS Recovery, Secondary Paths Verification   In the Alcatel-Lucent 7750 Service Routers, we can verify the Secondary LSP-Path configuration with the following commands. Verifying secondary LSPs use the following commands:…


RSVP-Objects
MPLS Protection and Restoration – Part 6 (RSVP Objects Used for MPLS Fast Reroute)

RSVP Objects Used for MPLS Fast Reroute There some RSVP Objects used in Fast Reroute(FRR). Beside this, RSVP-TE extend for this purposes. There are also some extensions on RSVP-TE for…


MPLS Protection and Restoration – Part 13 (Juniper Configuration Samples)

Node-Link Protection Configuration [edit] user@R1# edit protocols mpls label-switched-path lsp-path-name [edit] user@R1# edit protocols mpls label-switched-path lsp2-A-to-B To configure node-link protection for the LSP... [edit protocols mpls label-switched-path lsp-path-name] user@R1#…


MPLS Protection and Restoration – Part 12 (Juniper Configuration Samples)

Link Protection Configuration [edit] user@R1# edit protocols rsvp interface type-fpc/pic/port [edit] user@R1# edit protocols rsvp interface fe-1/1/1 To configure link protection for the interface... [edit protocols rsvp interface type-fpc/pic/port] user@R1#…


MPLS Protection and Restoration – Part 11 (Juniper Configuration Samples)

Juniper Configuration Samples for Protection One-to-one (fast reroute) backup Configuratio To enter edit mode... [edit] user@R1# edit protocols mpls To configure the LSP... [edit protocols mpls] user@R1# set label-switched-path lsp-path-name…


MPLS Protection and Restoration – Part 10 (Juniper Configuration Samples)

Juniper Configuration Samples for Protection One-to-one (Fast Reroute) configuration on JuNOS [edit] protocols { mpls { label-switched-path lsp-path-name { fast-reroute; } } } Many-to-one (Facility Backup) Link protection configuration on…


Global Mobile Data Traffic Forecast by Cisco (2014–2019)

In this post, you can find several important points about mobile data traffic growth between 2014 and 2019. This summary info will provide you a general view on mobile data…


vlan-translation-single-tag
VLAN Mapping (VLAN Translation) on Juniper

On Juniper devices, VLAN translation term is used for mentioning the swap of incoming VLAN id to a new VLAN id. In the below configuration examples, we will do this…


vlan-translation-cvlan-and-svlan
VLAN Mapping (VLAN Translation) on Cisco

On Cisco devices, VLAN mapping term is used for mentioning the swap of incoming VLAN id to a new VLAN id. In the below configuration examples, we will see Cisco…


vlan-mapping-vlan-translation
VLAN Mapping (VLAN Translation)

In the different locations of the customer, the same VLAN tag means the same. But there is a service provider network between the customer locations. Customers and the service provider…


Port-address-translation-pat
PAT Configuration with Packet Tracer

Packet Tracer PAT Configuration Example In some cases there can be hundreds of inside local addresses and at the same time your global ip addresses can be limited.At this time…


Dynamic nat
Dynamic NAT Configuration with Packet Tracer

Packet Tracer Dynamic NAT Configuration Example Before this article, we have talked about Static NAT configuration. Here, we will talk about Dynamic NAT configuration on Packet Tracer. As in Static…


Static NAT
Static NAT Configuration with Packet Tracer

Packet Tracer Static NAT Configuration Example In this example we will configure Static NAT (Network Address Translation) on Packet Tracer. For our Static NAT configuration, we will use the topology…


network address translation, NAT
NAT – Part 1 (Network Address Translation)

NAT (Network Address Translation) The increase of the internet users has consumed IPv4 addresses rapidly. And to continue with these addresses various techniques have used by organizations. One of them…


SNMP – Part 4 (SNMP Configuration On Nokia Service Routers)

SNMP Configuration On Nokia Service Routers In the previous articles on SNMP cofigurations, we have talked about Cisco and Juniper devices. In this article, we will handle SNMP configuration on…


ospf-virtual-link-topology-k
Routing with OSPF - Part 7

Other OSPF Key Points In htis article, we will talked about the remainning main lessons of OSPF. These small but important lessons are : • OSPF Router ID • OSPF…


ospf-network-types-k
Routing with OSPF – Part 6

OSPF Network Types OSPF Protocol can work in different network topologies. Some of these Network types are Standard and Some of them is Cisco Proprietary. Mainly,these networks types are given…


ospf-lsa-types-and-advertisements-k
Routing with OSPF – Part 5 (OSPF Area Types)

OSPF Area Types OSPF uses an hierarchical architecture and build OSPF network with different Areas. There are many specific Area types that are used with OSPF and these Area types…


lsa-types-of-ospf-k
Routing with OSPF – Part 4 (OSPF LSA Types)

OSPF LSA Types In OSPF Link-State information, in other words,Routing information is exchanged between routers. This exchange is done with LSAs (Link State Advertisements). There are eleven different LSA types…


ospf-packet-types
Routing with OSPF – Part 3 (OSPF Packet Types)

OSPF Packet Types OSPF use OSPF Packet sto communicate and establish OSPF Operation. There are different Packet types in OSPF and in this article, we will focus on these OSPF…


OSPF-Neighbourship-States
Routing with OSPF – Part 2 (OSPF Adjacency)

OSPF Adjacency OSPF Adjacency States Routers establish OSPF adjacency to use OSPF. From the beginning of the establishment to the full adjacency, there are some states. These states are mentioned…


ospf-router-types-k
Routing with OSPF - Part 1

OSPF(Open Shortest Path First) Overview OSPF(Open Shortest Path First) is a Link-State Routing Protocol. It is also Classless and an Open, Standard Protocol used by all vendors. OSPF uses Dijsktra…


TCP Header MSS and MTU
TCP Header Part – 5

TCP Options The last part of this article series is related to TCP options. After this there is aleady the data part. In this section there are some options that…


TCP Header window calculation
TCP Header Part – 4

TCP Window Size, Checksum & Urgent Pointer The window, checksum and urgent pointer are another important fields in TCP header. Each of these fields are 2 bytes long. Window Size…


ipv6-subnetting-www.ipcisco.com
Subnetting in IPv6

IPv6 Subnetting We have talk about IPv4 Subnetting in another lessons. In this lesson, we will focus on IPv6 Subnetting and how to use it with IPv6 Addresses. Subnetting is…


Global-Unicast-IPv6-Address-2
IPv6 Address Types

IPv6 Address Types IPv6 has some similar and some different address types than IPv4. There are still unicast addresses in IPv6 world but this time there will be one more…


ipv6-features-ipcisco.com
What does IPv6 bring?

What are the IPv6 Benefits? The new IP Protocol, IPv6 Protocol comes with some new features beside it. These new features brings manay benefits together with IPv6. What are these…


IPv6 Interface ID with EUI64 Format
IPv6 and IPv6 Addresses

What is an IPv6 Address? IPv6 Address is the new generation IP address that is mainly deveoped to overcome IPv4 exhaust and its limitations. Like IPv4, IPv6 has also different…


ospfv3-versus-ospfv2-ipcisco
IPv6 Routing Protocols – Part 2 (OSPFv3)

OSPFv3 (Open Shortest Path First Version 3) OSPFv3 is a new version of OSPFv2 protocol that is developed for IPv6. The previous version, OSPFv4 was only used for IPv4. With…


ipv4 ipv6 routing protocols transition
IPv6 Routing Protocols

IPv6 Routing Protocols IPv4 and IPv6 Protocol Comparison Routing is a process that we route packets in a network as static or dynamic. Static routing is done manually and dynamic…


IPTV network design
IPTV Overview– Part 2

Components of The IPTV System We can divide the IPTV compontents into 5 parts. These parts are defined below: National Head-End : Origination point of network broadcasts for tranmisssion over…


IPTV multicast
IPTV Overview– Part 1

IPTV Overview IPTV with its long name Internet Protocol Television is a television system that this service is delivered using the IP suite over a packet-switched network like internet. Traditionally,…


Ethernet collision
Ethernet Collisions and Troubleshooting

Ethernet Collisions and Troubleshooting In this article, we will focus on ethernet collisions and how to troubleshoot these common situations. Let’s start with, what is collision. In computer networking Collision…


Juniper-Static-Routing-Example
IPv6 Static Routes (On Juniper Routers)

IPv6 Static Routes (On Juniper Routers) On Juniper routers to create a static route for IPv6 we use “routing-options” hierarchy as IPv4. But this time after this hierarchy, we go…


cisco-static-routing-example
IPv6 Static Routes (On Cisco Routers)

IPv6 Static Routes (On Cisco Routers) On Cisco routers to create a static route for IPv6, we use the similar commands with IPv4. We can make this configuration with three…


packet tracer vtp topology
VTP Configuration with Packet Tracer

Packet Tracer VTP Configuration In this article, we will focus on how to configure VTP, with Packet Tracer. For VTP Configuration, we will use the topology below with two switches…


VTP, VLAN Trunking Protocol
VTP (VLAN Trunking Protocol)

VTP is a Layer 2 Protocol that allows to control, create and delete VLANs from a central VTP Server. Cisco switches are in “vtp server mode” by default. In a…


snmp configuration on juniper
SNMP - Part 3 (Configuration On Juniper Junos)

SNMP Configuration On Juniper Junos We begin the SNMP configuration with Cisco devices and here, we will continue how to configure a Juniper device for SNMP. In this article we…


snmp configuration example on cisco
SNMP Configuration On Cisco IOS

In this SNMP Configuration example, we will see how to configure SNMP on Cisco SNMP Agent device. In this part I do not consider necessary what the snmp agent is.…


MPLS Enabling on Cisco IOS
Enabling MPLS On Cisco Routers

Enabling MPLS On Cisco Routers In this article, we will study how to enable CEF, how to enable MPLS and how to configure label protocol ldp on Cisco routers. During…


tcp header
TCP Header Part – 3

TCP Flags Each TCP segment has a special purpose and this is determined by flags.Here we will study on 6 important control flags. There are also other options in flag…


TCP Header
TCP Header Part – 1

TCP Header Part 1 In this section, we will survey the TCP header in packets. As you know TCP is a layer 4 protocol and its header is also have…


TCP Header seq ack
TCP Header Part – 2

Sequence & Acknowledgement Number Sequence and acknowledgement fields are another important fields in tcp header.Each of these fields are 32 bits long. Datas generally sent and received with packets larger…


Nokia-default-and-floating-routing
Default Routes and Floating Static Routes on Alcatel Routers

Default Routes and Floating Static Routes In this lesson we will talk about two different Static Route types. One of them is "Default Routes" and the other is "Floating Routes".…


Alcatel static route configuration
Static Routing with Alcatel-Lucent Service Routers

Static Routing with Nokia (Alcatel-Lucent)Service Routers As you know Nokia is another network device vendor like Cisco and Juniper. Here, we will see the static route configuration with Nokia routers.…


cisco forecast
Cisco Global Cloud Index (2010-2015)

Cisco Global Cloud Index (2010-2015) In Cisco’s Global Cloud index, Cisco explore the trends and make the next 5 years datacenter virtualization and cloud computing forecasts. The key points in…


SNMP Configuration on Cisco Routers

  SNMP Configuration Commands for Cisco Routers There are a number of commands can be used to configure SNMP on a Cisco device. Some of these commands are required although…


Frame Relay Map
Basic Frame-Relay Configuration with both Inverse-ARP and Frame-Relay Map Command

[/wcm_restrict] Basic Frame-Relay Configuration with Both Inverse-ARP and Frame-Relay Map Command Here, we will talk about two options for configuring Frame-Relay Maps. One is Inverse-ARP and the other is with…


Basic Multipoint Frame Relay Configuration
Basic Multipoint Frame Relay Configuration

Basic Multipoint Frame RelayConfiguration on Cisco Here, in multipoint Frame-Relay configuration, we will use the same Cisco 3600 series routers and a frame relay switch. But here, our configuration will…


Basic Frame Relay Point-to-Point Configuration

Basic Frame Relay Point-to-Point Configuration on Cisco AS you know Frame-Relay is a well-known WAN technology that generally used for backbone routers. To understand the basic configuration of Frame-Relay, there…


Juniper Static Configuration
Static Route Configuration on Juniper Routers

Static Route Configuration on Juniper Routers In this article we will focus on static route configuration on Juniper routers. Here, we will use Juniper JuNOS and we will be familiar…


GSM Edge TEchnology
Evolution from 2G to LTE (Part 3 – EDGE)

Evolution from 2G to LTE (Part 3 – EDGE) Beyond GPRS, EDGE(Enhanced Data rates for GSM Evolution) takes the cellular community one step closer to UMTS. It provides higher data…


GPRS Topology
Evolution from 2G to LTE (Part 2 – GPRS)

Evolution from 2G to LTE (Part 2 – GPRS) The evolution had started with additional of the packet switched network to the GSM network architecture. And this new technology called…


GSM to LTE
Evolution from 2G to LTE (Part 1 – GSM)

Evolution from 2G to LTE (Part 1 – GSM) The evolution of the 2G technology to LTE technology is in three types: Technical evolution : The new network elements are…


DHCP4
Router DHCP Configuration with Packet Tracer

In this DHCP Cisco Packet Tracer example, we will focus on DHCP Configuration in Cisco Packet Tracer. In other words, we will see how to configure a DHCP Server with…


access-lists, pacl,racl,vacl
Access Control Lists for Traffic Control

Access Control Lists for Traffic Control There are various ways for network traffic control. One of the common ways for this job is using Access Contorol Lists. There are three…


mpls-header
What is MPLS?

What is MPLS? MPLS is a packet-forwarding technology which uses labels for data forwarding decisions.Over time, users in networks have increased and this big traffic has brougt high bandwidth and…


Basic JUNOS
Initial Configuration for Juniper Routers

Initial Configuration for Juniper Routers This article is telling about some of the initial configurations of Juniper Routers. Here are the steps that you will experience when you firstly start…


IPv4 Header
IPv4 and IPv6 Headers

IPv4 Header versus IPv6 Header   IPv4 and IPv6 are the two man version of Internet Protocol, IP. Both IPv4 and IPv6 has Headers and these headers are a little…


single area ospf
Cisco Single Area OSPF Configuration

OSPF Cisco Configuration OSPF (Open Shortest Path First) protocol is a well-know routing protocol that is widely used today.To configure a netowork for OSPF properly there are some steps. For…


static routing
Static Route Configuration on Cisco Routers

Static Route Configuration on Cisco Routers To send the traffic to the destination we can use two types of routing. Static and dynamic routing. Static route tell the network devices…


router-password-recovery
Cisco Router Password Recovery

Cisco Router Password Recovery There are several reasons to recover a router’s enable password. For example you can forget the password or somebody might give a password that you don’t…


Ether Channel
EtherChannel Configuration

Etherchannel Configuration Example Layer 3 Etherchannel Spanning-Tree blocks redundant links and avoid Layer 2 loops. Etherchannels load balance the traffic between the redundadnt links and uses the bandwidth more efficient.…


IP (Internet Protocol)

IP is the primary netwok protocol that used for relaying packets across an internetwork. It is developed in the 1970s. In the network world it is commonly used with TCP(Transmission…