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4G – LTE (Long Term Evolution)

Author: gokhankosem, on 09 Jun 15 - 0 Comments
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4G LTE (Long Term Evolution)

As you know mobile telecommunication has evolved for years. With this evolution, new network elements were included or the existing ones were upgraded.

Startig with 2G GSM technology, the evolution has continued orderly with:

– 2.5G GPRS,
– 2.75 EDGE,
– 3G UMTS,
– 3.5G HSPA,
– Evolved HSPA (HSPA+)
– 4G LTE.

The main aim of this evolution in mobile world, is speed. The next generation technologies are always providing much more speed that the previous one.

In this post we will focus on one of these technologies, 4G – LTE (Long Term Evolution), its architecture and the network components.

In the previous network architecture, in 3G, there are Node Bs, RNCs, SGSNs and GGSNs.

Basic 2G 3G network view

Basic 2G, 3G Network View

In the 4G LTE architecture, some of the previous network elements are retired and some of the others are evolved. Let’s check the 4G LTE network elements one by one:

EPC : Evolved Packet Core. LTE core network.

UE: User Equipment. Your mobile device.

eNodeB: Evolved Node B. It is the node that provides UE to connect the mobile network. It is also included a controller(it does the RNC job in the previous technology, 3G).


S-GW: S-GW routes and forwards the packets to and from the eNodeB and PDN-GW. S-GW is also serve as local mobiliy anchor for inter-eNodeB handover and mobility between 3GPP networks.

PDN-GW: The PGW acts as the interface between the LTE network and other packet data networks

MME: Manages the establishment and operation of user data connections.

HSS: Subscriber data and security database.

SAE: System Architecture Evolution. Core network architecture of LTE.

With the changes and additions, the new 4G LTE network architecture becomes like below:

Basic 4G LTE Network View

Basic 4G LTE Network View

There are many interfaces and additional nodes in 4G LTE architecture. You can see the most important ones above. For thew other interfaces’ definion, thanks to lteworld.org.

LTE Interfaces

LTE Interfaces

In this article we have talked about 4G LTE basically. In the following articles we will talked about 4G and LTE more.So, keep on ipcisco.com ;)

You can also read LTE-Advanced Features article.

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About the Author
Gokhan Kosem is a telecommunation and network engineer. His ambition to IP networks and end-to-end system installation made him to prepare this web-site. By sharing his experiences about various networking protocols beside different system installation experiences and Cisco, Juniper, Alcatel-Lucent devices configurations, he is aimed to be helpful for his collegues in all over the world. He is currently lives in Istanbul, Turkey.

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