The increase of the Internet users has consumed IPv4 addresses rapidly. And to continue with these addresses various techniques have used by organizations. One of teh techniques that is used to use IPv4 addresses effectively is NAT (Network Address Translation). And there are different NAT Types. In this lesson, we will talk about each of them briefly. You can also check these types of NAT in special lesson related to them.
As you know there are Public and Private IP Addresses. The Public IP Addresses are used to reach to the Internet and they can be routed on Internet. But the Private IP Addresses are used within an organization only, because they can not be routed on Internet.
With NAT (Network Address Translation), we can use a Private IP Address millions of times all over the world inside our networks and still we can access to the Internet. Here, NAT provides the translation from Private IP Address to the Public IP Address. We are connecting Internet with our Private IP Address, but in real at the backplane, our router is connecting Internet via Public IP Address.
With NAT, not only Private to Public IP Address translation is used. Beside, Public to Puclic or Private to Private translations are also done via NAT. But the first one is most common.
NAT is also used for Network Security. With NAT you can hide your network from the outside of the world. Because by using various types of NAT, the remote node that you connect over Internet, only knows your Public IP Address. It do not have any idea about your local Private IP Address.
If you would like to test yourself, you can check CCNA Quizes Page.
NAT (Network Address Translation) can be used in different ways in any network. So, there are some common NAT Types. These types of NAT are given below:
- Static NAT
- Dynamic NAT
- PAT (NAT Overload)
So, let’s explain these NAT types one by one.
Static NAT is the type of NAT that is used for One-to-One Translation of Ports or IP Addresses. In other words, for example in this NAT type, one Private IP Address is mapped to one Public IP Address.
In Static NAT, if you do your firewall setting well, then a Public IP can access to your Internal user. Because, here, IP translation is being done One-to-One.
Below, there is an example of Static NAT. In this Static NAT Example, each Private IP Address is translated to a specific Public IP Address. For example, 192.168.0.1 is translated to 18.104.22.168.
Dynamic NAT is the NAT type that is used with a Public IP Address Pool and works with more than one Public IP Address. Here, multiple Private IP Addresses are mapped to a Pool of Public IP Addresses.And these IP Addresses are given to the Internal users randomly. So, it is difficult to reach any Internal user from outside.
Dynamic NAT is used when the number of internal Internet users are known.
Below, there is an example of Dynamic NAT. In this Dynamic NAT Example, each Private IP Address is translated to a specific Public IP Address in Public IP Pool. The translation is random. For example, 192.168.0.3 is translated to 22.214.171.124.
PAT (NAT Overload)
PAT (Port Address Translation) is one of the NAT types that is also known as NAT Overload. Here, many Private IP Addresses are translated to one Public IP Address. The traffic distinguisher in PAT are Port Numbers, TCP/UDP ports are used in PAT (NAT Overload).
Each IP Address’s traffic is determined by these ports. If you have many Intrenet user in a location, this type of NAT is very useful for you.
Below, there is an example of PAt (NAT Overload). In this PAT Example, Private IP Addresses are translated to a specific Public IP Address with the help of Port Numbers. For example, 192.168.0.4:21 is translated to 126.96.36.199:21.
NAT Key Terms
By the way, there are some terms that we must explain in this lesson about NAT (NAT Address Translation). These NAT terms are given below:
- Inside local : Your PC’s private address
- Inside global : Public address assigned to your PC
- Outside local : Outside host’s public address
- Outside global: Same address as the outside local, necessary to translate an outside address to an private address.
Let’s explain this situation with an example.
• Inside Local Address – 10.1.1.10
• Inside Global Address – 188.8.131.52
• Outside Global Address – 184.108.40.206
• Outside Local Address – 220.127.116.11
Here the PC A ’s configured address, 10.1.1.10 is the Inside Local Address. When this PC wants to go to the Internet, it will use the Router A ‘s Public IP Address, using PAT. So the Inside Global Address of PC A is 18.104.22.168. During comunication with PC B, PC A access only PC B ‘s Outside Global Address, 22.214.171.124.