IP Addressing (IPv4)
IP Addressing is one of the key point that a network engineer need to learn first. In this article we will start with the distribution of the IP addresses and we will see all the details of IP Addressing. Here, we will mainly focus on IPv4 Addressing. IPv6 Addressing is also explained in another lesson.
Let’s start with the dsitribution of IP Addresses and see that where is this valuable numbers are coming to us…
How Does IP Addresses are Controlled?
IP addresses are controlled and distributed by IANA (Internet Assigned Numbers Authority). This authority gives the IP addresses to the Ragional Internet Registries (RIRs) and they distribute to the area or continental that it is responsible for.
There are 5 different Ragional Internet Registries (RIRs) in the world. These RIRs are:
• RIPE NCC (Réseaux IP Européens Network Coordination Centre)
• APNIC (Asia-Pacific Network Information Centre)
• AFRINIC (African Network Information Centre)
• ARIN (American Registry for Internet Numbers)
• LACNIC (Latin American and Caribbean Internet Addresses Registry)
There are currently two versions of IP Addresses. These are:
As we said before, in this lesson, we will focus on IPv4. IPv6 is explained in another lesson series.
IPv4 Addresses are 32 bits (8 bytes) addresses. This addresses are showed with four decimal numbers that are divided with dots like 192.168.2.1.
Here, all the decimal numbers can be from 0 to 255. This is basic math. If you have 8 bits for each number, you can produce number from 0 to 255.
We will talk about this detaily in this lesson.
IP Addresses are consist of two parts. The first part is network part and the second part is host part. This is detereined accourding to Subnet Mask.
Subnet Mask is also a number series like IP address, that shows the network portion of an IP address. Subnet Masks are used together with IP addresses.Subnet Mask can be like 255.255.255.0. As binary, this is 11111111.11111111.11111111.00000000.Here, 1’s are representing the network side. 0’s are representing host side.
Without Subnet Mask, we can not know that which network is this IP address belong. We will talk about this with Subnetting detailly.